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«OPTIMIZATION OF JUTE GEOTEXTILES IN PAVEMENT DESIGN STATE OF THE ART SHIVANI SRIDHAR & PAVITHRA L Civil Engineering Department Meenakshi Sundararajan ...»

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IMPACT: International Journal of Research in

Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET)

ISSN(E): 2321-8843; ISSN(P): 2347-4599

Vol. 3, Issue 8, Aug 2015, 7-20

© Impact Journals

OPTIMIZATION OF JUTE GEOTEXTILES IN PAVEMENT DESIGN

STATE OF THE ART

SHIVANI SRIDHAR & PAVITHRA L

Civil Engineering Department Meenakshi Sundararajan Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu India

ABSTRACT

Permeable textiles, used in association with geotechnical engineering related material, as an integral part of a man made project is called GEOTEXTILES. It has the ability to filter, reinforce, protect and drain. JUTE, a wholly renewable, bio degradable, naturally available geo textile is produced in abundance in India. Design of pavement using JGT is a boon to rural roads which enhances the aesthetic appearance also with benefits in lifecycle increment. Fortunately the economic aspect also in acceptance range. Coupled with the software analysis of designing a JGT incorporated road and comparing the ordinary flexible pavement, jute geotextile incorporated flexible pavement last longer than the usual roads.

KEYWORDS: Geotextile, Reinforcement, Aesthetic, Eco-Friendly, Long Life-Cycle

INTRODUCTION

Transportation contributes to economic, industrial, social and cultural development of any country. There are different modes of transportation such as railways, waterways and airways. But roadways are the only mode which could give maximum service to all. Even all the other three modes have to depend on roadways to reach their respective terminals. There are certain foreign materials being incorporated in pavements to make it further economical and for strengthening. One of the economical and eco-friendly product that is incorporated in a flexible pavement is JUTE GEOTEXTILE. Geotextile, particularly jute geotextiles are recently emerging technologies in geotechnical and bioengineering fields. The use of textiles in the construction industry is not new. At present there is a huge global demand for suitable jute geotextiles to be used in the civil engineering and construction industries.

Jute Geotextile Jute geotextile is one of the most important diversified jute products with a potentially large scale application. It can have several applications as: soil erosion control, vegetation consolidation, agro-mulching, reinforcement, and protection of riverbanks & embankments, land reclamation and in road pavement construction The demand for jute geotextiles is increasing in various parts of the world. However, absence of adequate awareness and standards and specifications seem to be affecting the possible expansion of the market.The distinguishing

features that make geotextiles more eco-friendly are:

• High moisture absorption capacity

• Flexibility

• Advantages of jute geotextiles

–  –  –

• Abundant availability

• Superior drapability

• Greater moisture retention capacity

• Lower costs compared to synthetic geotextiles

–  –  –

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us Optimization of Jute Geotextilesin Pavement Design

–  –  –

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

The flexible pavements are built with number of layers. In the design process, its is ensured that under the application of load none of the layers is overstressed. The maximum intensity of stresses occur in the top layer of the pavement. The magnitude of stresses reduces at the lower layers. Hence the superior pavement material is used in top layers of the flexible pavement.

Pavement performance can be largely attributed to the performance of its foundation, which is comprised of the subgrade and base layers. Base and subgrade layers must provide adequate and moisture resistant strength and modulus, in addition to durability and stability.

Frequently, in situ soils and local base materials do not meet project-specific requirements. Texas also has some of the most expansive soils in the country, which cause distresses in many pavements around the state.

–  –  –

Currently, a large portion of pavement construction consists of rehabilitating existing roads. These roads frequently contain subgrade or base material layers that are inadequate for current traffic loading demands. Shortages of high quality soil-aggregate sources are becoming more and more common statewide.

In order to achieve specified properties, subgrade, select fill, and base materials frequently require treatment with additives such as asphalt, cement, fly ash, and lime. Each of these materials must be properly designed to determine the most appropriate additive to achieve the desired improvement.

Test carried out on the Pavement Material

–  –  –

The property of a material to resist impact is known as toughness. Due to movement of vehicles on the road the aggregates are subjected to impact resulting in their breaking down into smaller pieces. The aggregates should therefore have sufficient toughness to resist their disintegration due to impact. This characteristic is measured by impact value test.





The aggregate impact value is a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock, which may differ from its resistance to gradually applied compressive load.

Apparatus

–  –  –

• A testing machine weighing 45 to 60 kg and having a metal base with a painted lower surface of not less than 30 cm in diameter. It is supported on level and plane concrete floor of minimum 45 cm thickness. The machine should also have provisions for fixing its base.

Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us Optimization of Jute Geotextilesin Pavement Design

• A cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 102 mm, depth 50 mm and minimum thickness 6.3 mm.

• A metal hammer or tub weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg the lower end being cylindrical in shape, 50 mm long, 100.0 mm in diameter, with a 2 mm chamfer at the lower edge and case hardened. The hammer should slide freely between vertical guides and be concentric with the cup. Free fall of hammer should be within 380±5 mm.

• A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 75 mm and depth 50 mm for measuring aggregates.

• Tamping rod 10 mm in diameter and 230 mm long, rounded at one end.

• A balance of capacity not less than 500g, readable and accurate up to 0.1 g.

PROCEDURE

The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm. Aggregates may be dried by heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled.

• Sieve the material through 12.5 mm and 10.0mm IS sieves. The aggregates

• Passing through 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10.0mm sieve comprises the testmaterial.

• Pour the aggregates to fill about just 1/3 rd depth of measuring cylinder.

• Compact the material by giving 25 gentle blows with the rounded end of thetamping rod.

• Add two more layers in similar manner, so that cylinder is full.

• Strike off the surplus aggregates.

• Determine the net weight of the aggregates to the nearest gram (W).

• Bring the impact machine to rest without wedging or packing up on the level plate,block or floor, so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical.

• Fix the cup firmly in position on the base of machine and place whole of the testsample in it and compact by giving 25 gentle strokes with tamping rod.

• Raise the hammer until its lower face is 380 mm above the surface of aggregate sample in the cup and allow it to fall freely on the aggregate sample. Give 15 such blows at an interval of not less than one second between successive falls.

• Remove the crushed aggregate from the cup and sieve it through 2.36 mm IS sievesuntil no further significant amount passes in one minute. Weigh the fraction passing the sieve to an accuracy of 1 gm. Also, weigh the fraction retained in the sieve.

–  –  –

DUCTILITY TEST ON BITUMEN

Procedure

• Completely melt the bituminous material to be tested by heating it to a temperature of 75 to 100oC above the approximate softening point until it becomes thoroughly fluid. Assemble the mould on a brass plate and in order to prevent the material under test from sticking, thoroughly coat the surface of the plate and the interior surfaces of the sides of the mould with a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and dextrin.While filling, pour the material in a thin stream back and forth from end to end of the mould until it is more than level full. Leave it to cool at room temperature for 30 to 40 minutes and then place it in a water bath maintained at the specified temperature for 30 minutes, after which cut off the excess bitumen by means of a hot, straight-edged putty knife or spatula, so that the mould is just level full.

• Place the brass plate and mould with briquette specimen in the water bath and keep it at the specified temperature for about 85 to 95 minutes. Remove the briquette from the plate, detach the side pieces and the briquette immediately.

• Attach the rings at each end of the two clips to the pins or hooks in the testing machine and pull the two clips apart horizontally at a uniform speed, as specified, until the briquette ruptures. Measure the distance in cm through which the clips have been pulled to produce rupture. While the test is being done, make sure that the Index Copernicus Value: 3.0 - Articles can be sent to editor@impactjournals.us Optimization of Jute Geotextilesin Pavement Design water in the tank of the testing machine covers the specimen both above and below by at least 25mm and the temperature is maintained continuously within ± 0.5oC of the specified temperature.

Results Within the acceptable limit of 30cms in briquette mould

PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION

Design Process

The flexible pavement design consist of the following stages:

–  –  –

The suitable weather course material is used to prevent wear and tear.

Prime Coat For flexible pavements, the graded subgrade or the top granular base layer may be prepared with a prime coat. A prime coat is a sprayed application of a cutback (M-30 or M-70) or emulsion asphalt applied to the surface of untreated

subgrade or base layers. The prime coat serves several purposes:

• fills the surface voids and protect the base from weather

• stabilizes the fines and preserve the base material

• promotes bonding to the subsequent pavement layers.

Tack Coat A tack coat material can be a PG binder or an emulsion layer applied between the pavement layers to promote bonding. Adequate bonding between constructed lifts (especially between the existing road surface and an overlay) is critical for the constructed pavement structure to behave as a single unit and provide adequate strength. If adjacent layers do not bond to one another they essentially behave as multiple independent thin layers - none of which are designed to accommodate the anticipated traffic-imposed bending stresses. Inadequate bonding between layers can result in delamination (debonding) followed by longitudinal wheel path cracking, alligator cracking, potholes, and other distresses such as rutting that greatly reduce pavement life.

–  –  –

Foundation As with any pavement structure, quality begins at the foundation level. These structures must have a uniform, stiff, durable foundation that will adequately support the premium materials placed above. To establish the appropriate type and level of stabilization according to established test procedures, a geotechnical investigation of the underlying soils should be performed. Where stabilization of the subgrade is impractical, a high quality granular base, cement-treated base, or other engineered foundation should be used.

Mix Placement and Compaction

Mix placement and compaction are the two most important elements in pavement construction. Mix placement involves any equipment or procedures used to place the delivered on the desired surface at the desired thickness. Mix placement can involve complicated asphalt paver operations or simple manual shoveling.

Compaction is the process by which the volume of air in a mixture is reduced by using external forces to reorient the constituent aggregate particles into a more closely spaced arrangement. This reduction of air volume in a mixture produces a corresponding increase in unit weight, or density. Numerous researchers have stated that compaction is the greatest determining factor in dense graded pavement performance.

IRC METHOD OF DESIGN

Indian roads congress has specified the design procedures for flexible pavements based on CBR values. The Pavement designs given in the previous edition IRC:37-1984 were applicable to design traffic upto only 30 million standard axles (msa). The earlier code is empirical in nature which has limitations regarding applicability and extrapolation. This guidelines follows analytical designs and developed new set of designs up to 150 msa.

Scope

These guidelines will apply to design of flexible pavements for Expressway, National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads, and other categories of roads. Flexible pavements are considered to include the pavements which have bituminous surfacing and granular base and sub-base courses conforming to IRC/ MOST standards. These guidelines apply to new pavements.

Design Traffic The method considers traffic in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (8160 kg) to be carried by the

pavement during the design life. This requires the following information:

–  –  –

• Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriage way.



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