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«Abstracts submitted for the World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004 A. Papers proposed for a panel with a focus on ...»

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Abstracts submitted for the World Rice Research Conference,

Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

A. Papers proposed for a panel with a focus on The System of Rice Intensification under the

theme "Improving Rice Yield Potential". Note: the first paper is an overview paper, and the

number of country reports is now fairly large, so the first paper could be a plenary paper; the

country papers, and the stature of their authors, should assure people that SRI is 'for real.'

• The System of Rice Intensification: Capitalizing on Existing Yield Potentials by Changing Management Practices to Increase Rice Productivity with Reduced Inputs and More Profitability, Norman Uphoff, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development, Cornell University, USA

• The System of Rice Intensification: Evaluations in Andhra Pradesh, India, A.

Satyanarayana, Director of Extension, A. N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, and P. V.

Satyanarayana, Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru, Andhra Pradesh, India

• On-Farm Evaluation of the System of Rice Intensification in Andhra Pradesh, India, P. V.

Satyanarayana, T. Srinivas, Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, and A. Satyanarayana, Director of Extension, ANGRAU, India

• On-Farm Evaluation of SRI in Tamiraparani Command Area, Tamil Nadu, India, T. M.

Thiyagarajan, College of Agriculture, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India

• Opportunities for Rice Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia with the System of Rice Inensification, Anischan Gani, Indonesian Institute for Rice Research, Sukamandi, Indonesia

• The 3-S Rice Cultivation Method Developed in Northern China: Comparisons with the System of Rice Intensification, Jin Xueyong, Northeastern Agricultural University, Haerbin, China

• Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the Southern Philippines with the System of Rice Intensification, Felipe Rafols Jr., Allan Gayem, Ligaya Belarmino, Flor L. Magbanua, Rene Q. Nombre, Joel A. Basiao, Carlos S. Salazar, Edgar F. Tagarao, Elmer T. Nepa, Pacifico E. Calibayan, and R. C. Lazaro, National Irrigation Administration, Philippines Note: this last paper could go on a panel under the theme of "Diversification of Rice-Based Systems." The five preceding papers come from leading rice researchers in the three largest rice-growing countries in the world: China, India, and Indonesia, making a good set.

B. Papers proposed for a panel with a focus on The System of Rice Intensification under the theme "Farmers' Participatory Approaches". Note: these papers could be on a panel with other papers not focusing on SRI, or this could be a panel on SRI participatory approaches.

• Farmer Participatory Extension in the System of Rice Intensification in Cambodia, Yang Saing Koma, Georg Deichert, Or Thy,and Yi Kimthan, CEDAC and GTZ, Cambodia

• Farmers' Participatory Approaches to Facilitate Adoption of Improved Technology:

Adaptation of System of Rice Intensification in Sri Lanka, Gamini Batuwitage, Gemi Diriya Community Development and Livelihood Improvement Project, H. M. Premaratna, Nature Farming Center, and U. G. Abeygunawardana, Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka

• Extension Initiatives and Farmer Response in Popularising the System of Rice Intensification in Andhra Pradesh, India, A. Satyanarayana, P. Punna Rao, P. Gidda Reddy, and I. Srinivasa Rao, A. N. G. Rao Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh, India

• Farmers' Participatory Extension: A Case Study of SRI Technology Adoption in West Godavari District, India, A. Satyanararyana, R. S. N. Rao, T. Ramamohana Rao, and P.

Rambabu, ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh, India

• Popularisation of SRI in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Success Case of Participatory Approach of One-Man Army, P. Punna Rao, A. Satyanarayana, P. Gidda Reddy, and I. S.

Rao, ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh, India Note: These last three abstracts were prepared separately and consequently have some overlap. They could possibly be consolidated into two papers, or maybe even one if the number that can be accepted is very limited. Andhra Pradesh has the most experience, and the most success, in SRI extension with farmer participation, so the number of abstracts reflects the amount of experience and enthusiasm in this state of India.

C. Two abstracts were submitted from Madagascar that could fit under other themes. One deals with soil microbiology and the effects of inoculation through seed and/or compost treatment, and the other analyzes the economic returns to different factors of production comparing SRI with a

modern and a traditional set of cultivation practices:

• Effects of the Use of SRI Root Exudates in the Improvement of Aerobic Rice Culture, Robert Randriamiharisoa, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar

• An Evaluation of Alternative Rice Cultivation Methods Used in Eastern Madagascar: The System of Rice Intensification, the System of Rice Improvement, and Traditional Farmer Methods, George Rakotondrabe and Glenn Lines, Landscape Development Interventions Project, and Cornell University, USA D. Finally, a paper analyzing the differences across seven rice varieties when grown with SRI and standard cultural practices, in terms of yield and components of yield, should be of considerable scientific interest and could be presented on a panel with other such scientific analyses.





• Varietal Performance under the System of Rice Intensification and with Standard Methods of Cultivation, P. V. Satyanarayana, T. Srinivas, L. Madhavilatha, Y. Suneetha, P. Raghava Reddy, and A. Satyanarayana, Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru, Andhra Pradesh, and ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India

Abstract

for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION: CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING YIELD

POTENTIALS BY CHANGING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO INCREASE RICE

PRODUCTIVITY WITH REDUCED INPUTS AND MORE PROFITABILITY

Norman Uphoff, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar 20 years ago is starting to gain understanding and acceptance around the world. By changing the way that rice plants, soil, water and nutrients are managed -- with more intensive labor inputs and management but reduced water, capital and agrochemical inputs -- rice yields are being increased by 50-100%, and by even more with good use of the methods. SRI has been controversial in scientific circles, but evidence is accumulating that SRI methods work as reported.

An IWMI evaluation of SRI in Sri Lanka found that even farmers not using all the SRI methods got a 50% increase in production, increasing their labor productivity by 50 to 62% and their water productivity by 90%. Costs of production were reduced, and profitability was increased (by 83% if all labor costs were calculated, and by 206% not counting family labor). Risk was reduced as non-SRI farmers had net economic losses in 28% of seasons; SRI farmers had losses in only 4%. These benefits can be even greater when SRI methods are used fully and properly.

This does not mean that attempts to improve rice yield potential should be halted. With SRI methods, all of the 15 t.ha-1 have been with high-yielding varieties or hybrids. However, traditional varieties have produced in the 6-12 t.ha-1 range with SRI methods. This paper will review the changes in plant, soil, water and nutrient management that affect both plant growth and the populations (and processes) of soil biota that enhance plant nutrition and health. SRI is still a methodology under development as farmers are making continuous improvements in it, e.g, for labor-saving purposes, and as researchers gain a better understanding of the effects of these practices, particularly creating an aerobic environment for rice plant roots and soil biota.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

–  –  –

A. Satyanarayana, Director of Extension, Acharya N. G. Rao Agricultural University, and P. V. Satyanarayana, Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru, Andhra Pradesh, India The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was introduced in Andhra Pradesh, India, during rainy season 2003. Wide publicity on SRI was given through electronic and print media, and farmers were informed before the season about the skills needed by organizing 300 on-farm demonstrations (0.4 ha each) in farmers' fields across all 22 districts of the State.

Rice yields averaged 8.36 t/ha with SRI methods compared to 4.9 t/ha uisng conventional methods on the comparison plots. The current average rice yield in the state is 3.87 t/ha. The highest SRI yield was 16.2 t/ha, followed by 15.7 t/ha, so SRI potential has not been fully achieved. State-wide, a 2 t/ha average yield advantage was recorded with SRI, irrespective of present yield levels. 25% of the farmers realized yields over 10 t/ha in their first season. Of special interest, the SRI crop matured 10 days earlier than normal, contrary to the claims of some scientists that SRI rice takes longer to mature.

Based on the success of SRI in the rainy season, a larger number of Andhra Pradesh farmers adopted SRI on over 2,500 ha in the post-rainy season 2003-04. This crop is reaching maturity now, and the results look much more encouraging than in the previous season, as farmers have developed their skills for practicing SRI. Average yield for the entire SRI crop is expected to be over 10 t/ha. Various innovations are being made by farmers to save labour and make the work easier, such as developing better implements for marking and weeding.

The experiences of Andhra Pradesh farmers, the reasons for high yields of rice with less inputs (reduced seed, water and chemicals), and microbiological contributions to increased yields with SRI are all discussed in more detail in the paper.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

–  –  –

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) involves transplanting single seedlings at 8-12 days age, with a spacing of 25 x 25 cm, in a well-manured plot managed with alternate wetting and drying until panicle initiation, and with periodic use of the rotary weeder. SRI, evolved in Madagascar, has been successfully adopted in several countries. The technology was first introduced and evaluated in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India during wet season 2003.

Based on initial encouraging results obtained from SRI plots, the technology has been extended for wider evaluation on farmers' fields during the dry season 2004, using the most popular rice varieties of the state. Detailed evaluation studies were conducted on 20 farmers' fields of West and East Godavari Districts of Andhra Pradesh state, on land holdings ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 ha.

The varieties tested were Swarna, Prabhat, Cottondora Sannalu, MTU 1038, MTU 1061 and MTU 1071.

Data on performance of these varieties in farmers' fields were obtained for both SRI and non-SRI practices, measuring grain-bearing tillers/m2, spikelet fertility, grain yield (kg/ha), harvest index, grain weight, and quality parameters such as milling per cent and rice recovery rate. The results revealed higher grain-bearing tillers/m2, increased spikelet fertility, greater grain weight, and more grain yield. The yield advantage for SRI technology over normal (non-SRI) ranged from

1.5 tons to 5.6 tons/ha, with 2.6 tons/ha being the average for the different varieties studied in the different fields, with lower costs of production.

The range of yield advantage was seen to be similar for all the varieties studied, indicating varietal non-specificity for SRI technology. Results on the quality parameters also revealed greater hulling, milling and rice recovery from SRI plots, compared to non-SRI rice harvested.

This indicates the superiority of SRI practices for achieving enhanced yield levels.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

ON-FARM EVALUATION OF THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION IN

TAMIRAPARANI COMMAND AREA, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

–  –  –

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was first evaluated in Tamil Nadu during 2001-2002 through field experiments. Based on encouraging results -- increased yield with less need for irrigation water, seed, and labour for weeding -- the State Government agreed to promote this system in two major rice-growing areas of the state.

SRI was evaluated during wet season 2003-2400 through 100 adaptive research trials in selected farmers’ fields in different parts of the Tamiraparani basin. The trials compared SRI with conventional cultivation methods on 1000 m-2 plots, without replication. Seed bed preparation and planting were done under the supervision of research staff. Trials were continuously monitored. Only 36 farmers followed all the recommendations, so SRI potential is probably understated in the results. All participating farmers used 14 d old seedlings with 20 x 20 cm spacing. Grain yield was reported at 14% moisture.

The yields under SRI and conventional cultivation ranged, respectively, from 4214 kg ha-1 to 10655 kg ha-1, and 3887 kg ha-1 to 8730 kg ha-1. Mean grain yields were 7227 kg ha-1 and 5657 kg ha-1, respectively, with SRI methods having an overall yield advantage of 1570 kg ha-1.

Yields over 8 t ha-1 were achieved by 31 farmers using SRI; only 3 achieved this with conventional cultivation. Maximum yield advantage recorded for SRI was 4036 kg ha-1 (70%).

Yield increases were due to increased numbers of panicles m-2 and increased numbers of grains panicle-1. Three of the 10 varieties used by the farmers were found to perform very well with SRI.

The benefits of SRI realized by farmers were (i) drastic reduction in seed rate, (ii) no requirement of herbicide, (iii) multiple advantages from using the weeder, (iv) water saving, and (v) increased number of panicles m-2, grains panicle-1, and grain and straw yield.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

OPPORTUNITIES FOR RICE SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN INDONESIA

WITH THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION



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