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«Abstracts submitted for the World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004 A. Papers proposed for a panel with a focus on ...»

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Anischan Gani, Indonesian Institute for Rice Research, Sukamandi, Indonesia In Indonesia, rice production has been stagnant since 1996, and area harvested and yield have decelerated over the last decade. National rice productivity decreased 1993-1998 at a rate of 42 kg/ha/year. Production factor efficiencies are also decreasing. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) offers promise for Indonesia because it increases concurrently the productivity of the land, labor, capital and water employed in rice production.

The Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD) began evaluating SRI in 1999 dry season at its rice center in Sukamandi, West Java. The result was 6.2 t/ha compared with a control yield of 4.1 t/ha. In next wet season, the SRI average was 8.2 t/ha, with one plot reaching

9.2 t/ha.

SRI was then evaluated together with integrated pest management (IPM) and reduced use of chemical fertilizer in a variety of locations over the next two years. Yield increases of 5.3 to 51.4% were documented. Consequently, AARD incorporated these methods into a new national strategy for Integrated Crop and Resource Management (ICM) for lowland rice.

A number of NGOs in Indonesia have begun experimenting with and promoting SRI. Farmers working with ADRA in Sumatra and East Nusatenggara got more than double their usual yield in 2002; the highest was 12.4 t/ha. The Small-Scale Irrigation Management Project in South Sulawesi documented average yield of 8.0 t/ha in 2002 with SRI. Hundreds of farmers working with the Integrated Pest Management Program in Indonesia have begun using SRI; a 2003 evaluation showed an average yield of 9.3 t/ha.

SRI experience in Indonesia suggests that changes in plant, soil, water and nutrient management practices, without increased capital inputs, can fairly easily raise Indonesian rice production to self-sufficiency levels or beyond. More important, it encourages farmers to become more dedicated innovators, learning from changes rather than continuing with past practices.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

THE 3-S RICE CULTIVATION METHOD DEVELOPED IN NORTHERN CHINA:

COMPARISONS WITH THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION

Prof. Jin Xueyong, Northeast Agricultural University, Haerbin, China A system for improved rice cultivation in cold zones was developed in Heilongjiong Province between 1994-95 and is now being popularized. It is called the '3-S' cultivating technique because it combines: (1) selecting Super rice variety with best quality; (2) wide Spacing of transplanting; and (3) Sustaining high yield with organic matter for the soil. It has many similarities with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed in Madagascar under very different, more temperate or even tropical conditions.

.

The factors that restrict realization of the productive potential of rice in Heilongjiong include:

less than best quality of seeds and seedlings; excessive number of plants per m2; long recovery period for seedlings after transplanting; unsuitable fertilization; and over-irrigation. The 3-S cultivating technique introduces countermeasures that have the goal of developing the individual plant's productive potential and of strengthen the whole population of rice plants.

The methods used include: sowing in a protected nursery earlier in the year, fostering vigorous seedling growth, transplanting single seedlings at the proper time with very wide spacing, reducing the amount of N application at the initial stage and applying it more deeply in the field, reducing and controlling water applications to use nutrient space more fully and improve nutrient timing, and stimulating the development of the plants' root systems. These methods make rice plants stronger and enhance the rate of photosynthesis, increasing both source and sink and thereby supporting higher-yielding plant populations.

In Heilongjiang province, the area planted with 3-S methods was more than 40,000 ha in 2003, with an average yield of 8.5 t/ha. This is 40% higher than with conventional cultivation methods used in the region. This increase is achieved with less water and with less cost of production, making the system more profitable and more sustainable.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

DIVERSIFYING RICE-BASED FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHERN

PHILIPPINES WITH THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION

–  –  –

This paper reports results of techno-demo trials to save water and raise farmer incomes with crop diversification using the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). The trials were supported by the Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector Project of the National Irrigation Administration, with loan funding from Asian Development Bank.

Mindanao. An SRI yield of 8.9 t.ha-1 was obtained on a one-hectare plot in Caragas region, with gross farm income of PhP 72,200 and net income of PhP 40,828, a benefit-cost ratio of 2.34 to 1.

Irrigation water was applied only at ten-day intervals. These results extrapolated to the Lower Agusan Development Project (LADP) showed water use during land soaking reduced by 45% and during crop maintenance by 73%. Power cost savings amounted to half a million Philippine pesos for land soaking, and 1.1 million for crop maintenance during the wetter months, and up to





2.0 million during the drier months. On farmers’ plots in Gibong Subproject standard methods using hybrid variety 72H gave yields of 4.6 t.ha-1 while SRI methods and IR64 with 35x35 cm spacing yielded 7.5 t.ha-1. Net income with standard methods was PhP 23,532, and with SRI, PhP 38,482, a 64% increase.

Visayas. On farmer-managed, pump-irrigated small farm plots in Negros Occidental, rice yield from traditionally-flooded rice production with random spacing was 2.65 t.ha-1; the Total Quality Production Management (TQPM) system that uses inorganic fertilizer as a booster and 10 x 30 cm spacing yielded 3.66 t.ha-1; while SRI at 35 x 35 cm spacing produced 7.33 t.ha-1. Net farm income was PhD 7,592 with farmers’ practice; PhP 11,130 with TQPM; and PhP 24,054 with SRI. Net income from SRI was 126% more than with TQPM, and 215% more than with farmers’ practice. Assessment of irrigation savings indicated a 67% reduction with SRI and pumping cost savings about 160%.

Respectively are two pioneering farmers of Barangay Balicotoc, Ilog Municipality, Negros Occidental;

Researcher, Institutional Development Officer (IDO), Technical Staff (TS), Provincial Irrigation Engineer (PIE), Regional Irrigation Manager, FIA President, IDO, and PIE-Gibong, SubProject Management Offices; and Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, Consultants’ Consortium (CC), SPISP.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

–  –  –

Yang Saing Koma, George Deichert, Or Thy, and Yi Kimthan CEDAC and GTZ/IFAD Kampoth/Kampong Thom Rural Development Project The first use of SRI in Cambodia was in 1999, introduced by CEDAC, a national NGO, with farmer-based field experimentation starting in 2000. That year, only 28 farmers were willing to participate in SRI evaluation. By 2003, nearly 10,000 farmers were using SRI, and the number is expected to reach 50, 000 during 2004.

The main approaches for wider adaptation and adoption of SRI are farmer-led experimentation and farmer-to-farmer extension. To strengthen farmer capacities, CEDAC uses farmer-group and farmer-promoter approaches. The focus of training is on basic principles and techniques of SRI, as farmers are encouraged to organize their own experimentation and share experiences among group members. The best farmers are chosen by group members to become farmer-promoters, who advise and teach other farmers in their own villages and in neighboring villages.

Through CEDAC or other NGOs/projects, they interact with other group leaders and receive further training in agriculture and community development. Farmer-promoters are now managing agricultural extension in around 200 villages. This number is increasing year to year.

A farmer-to-farmer extension fund is established, from which the association and/or individual farmers can request funds for conducting farmer training and exchanges.

After five years of field experience, SRI has shown itself to be an appropriate solution for millions of rice farmers in Cambodia. It is a good entry point for starting or strengthening the process of farmer experimentation and farmer-to-farmer extension as well as for developing farmer organizations.

With SRI, farmers have gained confidence that the future of rice farming is more favorable than previously thought. They become interested in developing their rice fields into a highly productive, diversified and sustainable operations, combining rice, fish, fruit and multi-purpose trees, vegetables and herbs, in what is known as a multi-purpose rice field.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

FARMERS' PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES TO

FACILITATE ADOPTION OF IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY:

ADAPTATION OF THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION IN SRI LANKA

Gamini Batuwitage, Director, Gemi Diriya Community Development and Livelihood Improvement Project, H. M. Premaratna, Ecological Farming Center, and U. G. Abeygunawardena, Ministry of Agriculture, Sri Lanka The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was introduced to Sri Lanka in 2000 as a response to the need of farmers for low-cost, low-input techniques for improving rice production, quality and income. As the environment for agricultural extension through official channels was not favorable, enthusiastic groups of farmers took over this task. They used farmer-to-farmer extension methods to extend information on the new techniques for increasing rice production with less inputs, and getting much higher returns, in 19 districts out of the 25 in Sri Lanka through various farmer-managed approaches.

The principles of SRI were adapted to local conditions; appropriate implements and tools were produced; practical training and orientation arrangements were designed and put into practice;

material the for dissemination of information were produced. A number of political stakeholders were attracted to the approach, including a Deputy Minister of Agriculture who used the methods personally on his own rice farm, getting yields as high as 16 t/ha. The President was impressed by the results as reported to her by farmers. Several Parliamentarians took keen interest in dissemination of information to farmers using farmer demonstrations of results in rural areas.

Formal and informal methods of communication have been used to attract practitioners, demonstrating the best practices to adopt for SRI in many locations. The results have been recorded and disseminated. The paper describes how the impressive outcomes can be made to speak for themselves, given the inherent potential in SRI. The demonstrated progress has attracted an ever-wider acceptance of SRI, with the scientific basis for its success also expanding now to explain the data coming from a large number of practitioners who are using the methods in diverse production environments.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, November 4-7, 2004

EXTENSION INITIATIVES AND FARMER RESPONSE IN POPULARISING

THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION IN ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

–  –  –

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a low-cost technology for lowland rice that can increase yield potential and factor productivity. Adoption of this methodology on a wider scale requires major extension efforts to create awareness and educate farmers about required skills.

SRI was introduced in the state of Andhra Pradesh during rainy season 2003 for the first time through 300 on-farm demonstrations (0.4 ha. each).

State-wide awareness programs communicated SRI concepts and techniques through electronic and print media, VCDs, training programs, etc. Pattern of adoption and perceptions of farmers were studied after the season, with 67 randomly-selected farmers, to develop a strategy to further extend SRI. The data indicated that most initial adopters were middle-aged (76.6%) and educated at high school or higher level (85%). Mass communication was effective for reaching such farmers, but the most common source of information was the state's agricultural university (ANGRAU).

All categories of farmers, small, medium and large, adopted SRI irrespective of availability of family labour. Farmers with limited irrigation water were attracted to SRI because of its watersaving. However, high SRI yields have led farmers in canal-irrigated areas of the Godavari delta also to adopt SRI in a big way during the subsequent season.

As many as 26 different varieties of rice were tried by the farmers with SRI. All gave improved yields, showing that SRI methods are variety-neutral. Almost all farmers (87.9%) adopted the transplanting of 8-12 day old young seedlings at 25x25 cm spacing. Farmers' expenditures on seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation were all less under SRI. The findings of the survey indicated that farmers can get 2.0 tons per hectare additional yield just by planting younger seedlings, carefully and with wider spacing, accompanied by better water management, compared to yields using conventional methods with more costly inputs.

Abstract for World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo-Tsukuba, November 4-7, 2004

FARMERS' PARTICIPATORY EXTENSION: A CASE STUDY OF SRI

TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT, INDIA



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