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«ISSUE Vol. VIII No. 1 March 2013 ERENET PROFILE CONTENT SPRING MESSAGE PUBLISHER Dr. Péter Szirmai – Editor PAPERS Dr. Antal Szabó – ...»

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It lands in order on an island, so that passangers have time to think during they relax. Big companies clearly reach less profit than in the current status quo, as their markets shrinken and become local. They might loose some benefits of the economies of scale, and even in case they can keep up their current size, local units have to give local solutions to local markets, and drammatically increase their autonomy. This means that in the production sphere less machines and more people work, corporations will think again Reference to the famous artile by Garret Hardin in 1972, referring to the article of William Foster Lloyd from 1833, describing the dilemma of limited common pastures and unlimited increase in consumption of cows.

ERENET Profile Vol. VIII. No. 1. www.erenet.org more in terms of work and cooperation, and less in terms of profit and shareholders. A higher proportion of the big actors’ profit will stay at the discretion of the local daughter companies. The energies extricated will be utilized by small companies and individual entrepreneurs. Those who were gradually more and more out of the global supply chain, will gain markets again. This scenario, which is depicted as an orange continuous line on Illustration 16, promises moderate and slow growth, but safe development.

Every normal person wants to avoid the catastrophe scenario, it is simply not worthwhile to believe in it, it is identical to resigning from our future. Excluding hope is detrimental, it does not match our belief of human freedom to act. At the practical level it paralyses positive action and results in apathy. Less and less people believe in continued globalization, the warning signs are so obvious. Our current development avenue is bushed with ecological disasters and adverse global distress. Social crisis symptoms are less visible, but also even statistically obvious (less marriages, declining number of children, aging population). Finally, the system does not seem to have the capacities to solve the economic crisis. We can conclude that the localization scenario is the only realistic alternative, which might promise a less quickly modernizing and glossy future than continued globalization, but an alternative we can believe in and struggle for.

The most pressing question here is whether this ecumenic-economic paradigm shift is a realistic scenario, or merely wishful thinking. Can we realistically expect utilitarian economics loosing domination and the renaissance of moral economics? It is sure that we have to count with the most extraordinary change of our material world and value system within decades. However, we do not know if the material collapse induces a new value system, or the values shift will be able to generate a modest non-material development.

On Illustration 16 we show that a conscious paradigm shift is a big challenge, but it will result in smaller decline of our welfare and a possible rise in our well-being. A much larger decline is foreseen if we force the globalization scenario further and reach the point of the catastrophe. It is of vital importance, that we first decide which scenario we find feasible, and not to react to the situations afterwards. Listing the proliferation of initiatives of local economies and the escalation of localization would overburden this article, but there are more and more. On the other hand we could list instances showing that the way of thinking have not changed, even not since 2008. In this interdependent world of today we have to act not only smart and cunning, but also wise. In other words our individual actions have to serve the common good, if we only

follow our individual interest in a smart way, that might even lead us further to unsustainability. Once again:

the common good is identical with the localization scenario, which is only possible through a value-shift, getting rid of economism.

In the closing part of the paper we try to find an answer to the question in the title, namely how to

call the new theory35. We can summarize what we know of the new scientific theory. It:

1. Should be in an economic theory.

2. Must not result in significant downturn, but should not make unrealistic promises.

3. Cannot be told in a religious language,

4. But must harmonize with major religions.

5. Must harmonize with natural law (in narrower terms with ecology, biology and ethology).

6. Must „pack a punch”, should be well-established, integrative, understandable.

7. Must be simple, just, effective, shortly: beautiful!

The economics promising sustainable development can be defined as this: economics is the proper management of resources, which can be extended by technology and market, but are ultimately limited, to serve persons and their communities. To accomplish that, we must take into consideration the materialspiritual needs of at least the seven coming generations, and to let living space and chance for other species, worthy of their nature.

It might be disappointing that we do not get further than coining a name and defining the new economic theory. But the name also outlines the direction: while the old (utilitarian) economics aims at saving and rationality, the new theory is based on the necessary minimum and the belief of wisdom beyond rationality.

I do not use the term paradigm here, although paradigm shift is the goal. I think, however, that we cannot make a paradigm shift with articles or movements. Nevertheless, it is possible to work out a scientific theory, which people hold true and can beleive, and in the spirit of the new theory they change the paradigm themselves.

ERENET Profile Vol. VIII. No. 1. www.erenet.org

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Baritz Laura [2012]: Alternatív gazdasági modell erényetikai paradigmában. Elő adás a Vállalkozás, etika, erkölcs szekcióban, Kautz Gyula Konferencia, Győ r, 2012. június 12.

Jean Boulakia [1971]: Ibn Khaldûn: A Fourteenth-Century Economist. The Journal of Political Economy (The University of Chicago Press) 79 (5): 1105–1118.

Stéphane Courtois (ed., et.al) [1997]: Le Livre noir du communisme, magyarul: A kommunizmus fekete könyve:

Bű ntény, terror, megtorlás, Nagyvilág Kiadó, Budapest, 2000.

Al Gore [2006]: An Inconvenient Truth, Rodale Books.

Jeff Goodell [2007]: The Prophet of Climate Change: James Lovelock, Rolling Stone Magazine, November 1, 2007.

Garrett Hardin [1968]: The Tragedy of the Commons, Science, 162 (1968), 1243-1248. o.

Roy Harrod [1951]: The Life of John Maynard Keynes. MacMillan, USA.

Hetesi Zsolt [2008]: A felélt jövő – A Fenntartható Fejlő dés Egyetemközi Kutatócsoport helyzetértékelő je, FFEK, Budapest.

Ibn Khaldun [1375]: The Muqaddimah. Translated by Franz Rosenthal, Bollingen Series, Princeton University Press. Princeton, N.Y. 1989.

Krúdy Tamás [2012]: Döglött népességbomba. Képmás, 2012-03, 28-31. oldal.

Krúdy Tamás [2012]: Mégis, kinek az érdeke? A Kissinger Jelentés. Képmás, 2012-04, 34-37. oldal.

Simon Kuznets [1971]: Modern Economic Growth: Findings and Reflections, Lecture to the memory of Alfred Nobel, December 11, 1971 William Forster Lloyd [1833]: Two Lectures on the Checks to Population, Oxford, England, Oxford University Press.

Moscow Demographic Summit [2011]: Declaration – Family and the Future of Humankind, 29-30. 06. 2011., Moszkva. www.worldcongress.ru, magyarul: http://www.noe.hu/index.php?hir=283 Johan Rockström (et al) [2009]: A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461, 472–475.

Joseph A. Schumpeter [1994]: History of Economic Analysis. Oxford University Press. New York 1994.

Adam Smith [1776]: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, online verzió:

http://www.online-literature.com/adam_smith/wealth_nations The Worldwatch Institute [2007]: State of the World 2007 – Our Urban Future, The Worldwatch Institute, Washington DC.

GFN, WWF, ZSL [2012]: Living Planet Report 2012, Global Footprint Network, World Wildlife Fund, Zoological Society of London, www.footprintnetwork.org  Pope Benedict XVI, ageded 85, on 11 February 2013, has officially resigned. From 28 February 2013, at 20:00 hours, the See of Rome, the See of Saint Peter became vacant. The Pontific annouced, that "I will simply be a pilgrim who is starting the last phase of his pilgrimage on this earth.” The nearly eight-year long potificate has ended with a remarkable resignation. After staying the steering weel of the boat of Saint Peter with more than 1.2 billion Roman Catholics worldwide he accepted the fact that his physical health has deteriorated to the point where he cannot continue to carry ont he heavy responsibilities of leading the Church.

Benedict called his desicion as of great importance for the life of the church.

The Pope is not a political figure in a classic sence, however what he belive, thinks and says impacts on politics all over the word. This is one of the reasons why Vatican has an „Observer Status” at the United Nations and embasies in many countries. The Holy Father is the highest intelletual person and his views are beaming like a Pharos – lighthouse – over the heavy sea and the world politics as well.

Lighning struck the Saint Peter’s dome Vatican ©

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This paper explores the role of education in relation to spirituality in business. It questions if spirituality can make a contribution to the development of social entrepreneurship, leading to social innovation. It defines social entrepreneurship and describes how new business models emerge, as new social imaginaries (Charles Taylor) about entrepreneurship. Whitespace is introduced, a concept in art that points at the white in text or image. This white seems empty but is at the same hand an important aspect of the work of art that creates meaning. A specific case, a five day training of Belieforama (a European program for adult education on issues of religion and belief) is described and explored using the metaphor of whitespace, both as a method and a container for this exploration. It concludes stating that education can play an important role for the development of social entrepreneurship, giving some recommendations. It requires a different approach, where learning is an ongoing circular process.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, education, social innovation, whitespace, social imaginaries and spirituality

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Spirituality and development of social entrepreneurship The SPES forum aims to address the question how spirituality can be opened up as a vital source in social and economic life. This paper wants to make a contribution to this conversation by opening the question how spirituality in education can inspire the development of social entrepreneurship in a meaningful way, and how this may lead to social innovation. In view of the nature of this text ‘essay’ may be a better word for this effort to develop new concepts in this field, while connecting academic reflection and practical experience.

Can spirituality in non-formal adult education create space for the development of social entrepreneurship, and if so, what about the how?

I will introduce a case, a project that aims to develop social entrepreneurship: Belieforama, a European Community of Practice (CoP) for adult education. This CoP wants to address the complex societal issue of religious diversity through adult education. It does so by means of development of educational material and train-the-trainer courses and based upon its own quality framework and expertise within the field.

(www.belieforama.eu) This effort to develop new didactic approaches needs new language, both as a method for exploration and as a description. Whitespace is a well known concept in art and literature; the white within the image or text that seems to be empty or the white lines between the lines of a poem. Although it seems empty, at the same time this white is a meaningful element of the image or text. It is an emptiness that is filled with meaning.2 This metaphor will function both as a open, meaningful image for further exploration and as a ERENET Profile Vol. VIII. No. 1. www.erenet.org container for the outcomes of this paper.


We live in a world that describes itself by the story of a market; there is an exchange of goods or services for a certain price, aiming to earn a profit in money. The hero in this story is the entrepreneur, an autonomous independent person, who is calculating risks and aiming at optimal profit. Entrepreneurship refers to the quality of an entrepreneur: an enterprising individual who builds capital through risk and/or initiative.

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