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«ISSUE Vol. VIII No. 1 March 2013 ERENET PROFILE CONTENT SPRING MESSAGE PUBLISHER Dr. Péter Szirmai – Editor PAPERS Dr. Antal Szabó – ...»

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ERENET Profile Vol. VIII. No. 1. www.erenet.org In their evaluations, participants made clear that the training course had been both informative and inspiring, and that they felt empowered to work on those issues in their working environment.


I want to conclude with some observations about meaningful aspects for training for development of social entrepreneurship.

Playful elements were essential in this training process: brief intermissions with energizers, spontaneous song or reading poetry, making jokes about practical things that went wrong (as they always do, working with an international group in a foreign city). And of course: free time, an afternoon with no program, enabling participants to digest their experiences in the way that suited them best and build new networks among them.

One can choose many positions, but are you able to postpone judgment and are you able to you play with the choices that you can make? It made this training like a playground, but an earnest one.

When people reveal themselves in speech as they did in this training, the relation with the other is of essential importance. Halsema introduces the notion of horizontal transcendence, of “transcending oneself and the other in dialogue”. Only if I can admit that I am not omnipotent and omniscient, but that something, or rather someone is not to be managed, then I can respect this person in his or her own right. The conversation that focuses reflection on what is important in mutual coexistence, namely the different thoughts about what is just, what a good and proper relationship with others should be and what it means to consider one’s own life to be a good life. It involves articulating a horizon of values that are not fixed. 10 Baker and Jensen, in cooperation with Kolb (an established thinker about experiential learning) developed some interesting ideas on what they call conversational learning: “a way of being in conversation and of fostering experiential learning that increases the likelihood of creative learning within conversational spaces - i.e., providing a common ground that is safe and broad enough to invite a deepening engagement with differences” 11 They explore five dialectics to describe important conditions for this process: integrated knowing, praxis (a rhythmic process of action and contemplation), a spiral movement around doing and being, intersubjectivity and hospitality. An essential condition for conversational learning is room to stay in the transition phase between order and surprise, room both in time, space and mind. This room is given to you by other human beings. It is, in other words: whitespace.

These are all efforts to develop new didactic approaches, of new language, to describe the process of accommodating space to read the subtle languages of the inner and the outer world, both personally and in a group. Deepened autonomy is the starting point: the inner diversity of each participant mirrors itself to the inner world of the other. It is about bringing ‘active pluralism’ into practice. Most didactic theory and practice is built upon the assumption that learning is a linear process, leading to new knowledge from a starting point

of relative ignorance. Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo brings in another kind of rich image, a dynamic circle:

“The linear concept of human beings going up the ladder, following the clear-cut pattern of a career, “getting there”, may still be the one where people are always seen in the limelight, public figures once and for all. But, I ask, isn’t there another form of being in history? The spiral evolution of the ziggurat in Mesopotamia (I remember looking endlessly at one near Bagdad) is not the image of another mode of intervention? 12” The practice of active pluralism is about learning in those circles of the ziggurat, rather than a staircase, leading to higher (self) awareness and skill to read emerging existential knowledge and integrate this into action.

How can spirituality in non-formal adult education create space for the development of social entrepreneurship? Building new social imaginaries on spirituality and social entrepreneurship needs to be done in a process of continuous conversation and reflection. It is about developing practices of active pluralism while doing it. In order to go beyond the ‘fat ego’ 13 of the independent autonomous human being to the deepened autonomy of interdependence, there needs to be space to open up to existential sources, and to integrate existential and moral knowledge. Doing so is building new social imaginaries; it is building a collective practice 14.

The centre is still and silent in the midst of an eternal dance of circles.


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Subscript Notes:

1 In German:

Ich lebe mein Leben in wachsenden Ringen, die sich über die Dinge ziehn.

Ich werde den letzten vielleicht nicht vollbringen, aber versuchen will ich ihn.

2 VAN DIJK, Yrra van, (2006), Leegte, leegte die ademt, Nijmegen, Vantilt 3 TAYLOR, Charles, (2004) Modern social imaginaries. Durhham: Duke University Press, p. 23 4 ABU SAIFAN, S (2012), Social entrepreneurshiop, definition and boundaries, Technology Innovation Management Review, February 2012: 22-27 5 Gerard Schoep, director of ZZWD, housing facilities for the elderly. Interview October 2010 (not published) Book: Help, mijn moeder wordt oud! www.helpmijnoederwordtoud.nl 6 KUNNEMAN, Harry (2005), Voorbij het dikke ik, Amsterdam: HUP/SWP 7 JONKER, Jan ism. Marloes Tap en Tim van Straaten, New Business Models, working paper Duurzaam organiseren, ttp://www.degroenezaak.com/upload/documents/WP%20Nieuwe%20Business%20Modellen%20Jan%20Jonker%20, retrieved 30-6-2012 8 TAYLOR, Charles, (2010), Een seculiere tijd, Rotterdam: Lemiscaat, p. 3 9 CILLIERS, Paul, (2007), On the importance of a certain slowness, in: Worldviews, Science and Us: Philosophy and Complexity, ed. Carlos Gershenson a.o., Singapore;World Science Press 10 HALSEMA, Annemie, (2007), Horizontale transcendentie in een multiculturele wereld, in: De stille kracht van transcendentie, Amsterdam: HUP/SWP 11 KOLB, David, BAKER, Ann & JENSEN, Patricia, (2005), Conversation as experiential learning, in:

Management Learning, vol. 36, issue, 411-427 12 PINTASILGO, Maria de Lourdes (1980). Creative Women in changing societies. Retirado em março 10, 2009 de http/www.arquivopintasilgo.pt.

13 KUNNEMAN, Harry (2005), Voorbij het dikke ik, Amsterdam: HUP/SWP 14 See website of interesting project at University of Utrecht: www.collective-action.info

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The ancient culture already new the relationship between life and light as well as between colour and energy. She draws attention that our common value is the nature. The human being could contemplate the garden. Nature, spirituality and beauty are steaming form the same roots. In her paining metaphors revealing the message which is invisible.

Keywords: light and life, colour, the role of colours in nature JEL Code: D60, Z1

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Certain dreams are audacious and limitless...

The pit swells, explodes, distends itself, giving birth to time.

Stars, galaxies and our solar system organize itself.

The fabulous promise is finally fulfilled when rains of dust of the stars sow the primitive oceans. The pure white energy of the stars impregnates the earth with life, which appears in the form of seaweed. Now, it so happens that this ‘seaweed-mother’ contains in its cells the colours of the rainbow. It is therefore, the atoms forged in the constellations to which we owe colour, which represents the passage to life.

Green was the firstborn: Chlorophyll is a natural green pigment in the plant cells, whose role is essential in the process of photosynthesis. Green arrives long before the fish and the birds because it is the colour of origin.

The ancient cultures already knew the relationship between life and light. Between colours and energy.

We are beings borne of light.

The work of life travelled the mystical intuition of our ancestors, and keeps something impenetrable and intangible, like the art of any genius.

The ancestral knowledge is transmitted through myths and fairy tales, but also through the etymology of words. They illuminate the earth and the story of humanity’s origin and sometimes draw us towards surprising discoveries.

Let us take the word colour. Color is a Latin word and its etymology helps us to go back to the source of life.

Color is linked to the group: celare which means: to hide, to hold secret, to hide from the eyes, from knowledge… Is it possible that the word colour contains the great secret of the creation of the world and that this mystery is to remain forever inaccessible?

Plants and their colours rooted their energy deep in the tissue of those living on Earth. In the blood of the human slips salt of the sea, our first mother, in our veins flow the shadows of plantlife.

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help us to create a respectful and harmonious humanity.

With the emergence of conscience, the human being could contemplate the garden. The relation ship to art and the beauty of the universe is as old as humanity. By associating colours and lining up words, according to astrophysicist Hubert Reeves, humans pursue the creative activity of nature, which she has deployed for 15 billion years.

I remember the first time I saw the tattooed skin of a Maori in New Zealand. The drawings seemed to be inspired from the trunk of a tree fern and could have been interpreted as: "I am the fern, I am the tree; nature is me and I am nature..." So I said to myself: "This Maori man carries with him the Maori signs inscribed in the collective memory, he has traced on his skin the message the ancients already knew: Nature is part of us, it is indelible and I must never forget this! " Carried by this revelation, I began to explore.

I imagine the pictures of the past that are certainly anchored deep in our bodies, and try to make them reappear through my paintings and my sculptures, like the storyteller. I search how to release what we have not known but what flows in the depths of our souls. The similarities between humans and plants do not expose themselves right away, because the ancestral footprints are hidden under the silent veil of nature. And yet, our knowledge is linked to those little things so close to our eyes. The salt of our tears, memories of a bygone time, the way our palms open and close like flowers, our five fingers and the five points of the star, our veins and the branches of trees, our bones and the stone. Nature inscribes itself in human beings and human beings inscribe themselves into nature.

In the imagery of my work, mysterious divinities are represented through symbols of femininity, that is to say, symbols of fertility and the creative force. They represent the creation of the universe and the forces of life on earth. My goddesses are the center of the world around them, they reign over their respective kingdoms, the plant, the animal, the mineral. All in all, they are the mothers of nature in its entirety, and make me reconnect with the silent traces of the passage of time.

In my painting, metaphors call to one another. I immerse myself in them, revealing the message of the invisible. A foot becomes a root, hair a crown of leaves, arms a vee of branches. I invent tattoos: flowering twigs. Sensual creepers embrace bodies, the yellow sap of grass runs under the skins of their faces. I have always wanted birds to nest in our hair, I paint what it would be like to have sparrows and robins coming to roost in our locks... I marvel at the divine proportions of shells of snails. Nature, generous and sublime, invades my senses and I become an esthete, all I want is to contemplate this magnificence.

As a child, plants and animals nourished me, they also fed my imagination: the bluetit, the wild orchid, the whale, the grizzly... Inspired so many emotions, still very much alive!

For children to come we have to protect this natural and cultural heritage.

With every species that goes extinct, humanity mutilates its imagination profoundly. With the death of the white bear we lose a piece of our fantasy. With the death of the giant sequoia, we amputate our own freedom…

MacMillan, a 19th century American ornithologist, has already alerted the world by writing:

« We must save the condors not only because we need the condors but also because we need to develop the necessary qualities to save them; because these are this qualities that we shall need to save ourselves. »

Corinne Boureau 23 september 2012 www.corinneboureau.nl

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The purpose of this document is to provide a short summary of the legislation currently applicable to the microcrediting sector in Hungary. It also gives a brief outline of how the legislation is put into practice and how it has evolved throughout the times. The document itself does not aim at completeness, i.e. it does not intend to describe the structure and practice of all the organizations defining themselves as ‘microfinance’ institutions without having a significant social impact. It rather concentrates on the determinant institutions and the practice thereof. However, the legislation presented is considered as standard with regard to all the organizations not mentioned herein.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, microcrediting, microcredit institutions, microcredit legislation, Hungary JEL Code: G21, G32, L26, O16



5.1 The organizational and operating structure of the National Microcredit Programme The organizational and operating structure of the National Microcredit Programme (the former PHARE

Microcredit Programme) is shown in the diagram below:

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5.2 Summary of the operating characteristics of the National Microcredit Programme National programme co-ordinator and mediator of the sources – Hungarian Foundation for Enterprise Promotion (further as HFEP)


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