«ISSUE Vol. VIII No. 1 March 2013 ERENET PROFILE CONTENT SPRING MESSAGE PUBLISHER Dr. Péter Szirmai – Editor PAPERS Dr. Antal Szabó – ...»
Accordingly to Anton Pavlovich Chekhov – one of the Russian classic writers - “every human being should be completely characterized by a beauty – his body as well as his thoughts.” Shortcomings in the actual education system in many countries are evident: technical disciplines are overestimated to the detriment of those oriented to the aesthetic feeling and spirituality.
Also entrepreneurial environment should be adopted to increase nobleness feelings and behaviour in everybody, emphasising also the importance of aesthetical function of the beauty (rooted in the Nature).
Methodological problems consist in the basic premise: any successful application will depend on personal quality, integrity and example of promoters (including players in the markets). Special field for applying art is connected with the popularization of science among employees. Correct presentations of sustainable development are needed to avoid false misinterpreting ideas. Today for many people only money seems to be decisive in their lives and entrepreneurial activities – even including human relationship.
4. THE MUSIC AND THE NATURE
Let me limit my presentation to the very substantial part of the art – classical music. The art can serve as the important means how to cultivate our heart. The music cultivates our sentiments, feelings and consciousness including a love for the Nature and its beauty.
We know that the abiotic nature has its own values (cultural, aesthetic, functional, scientific, research, educational, informatics) and that it should be considered as a value itself. The nature is valuable because of its existence, not only for its possible exploitation by people.
How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people by such a music increasing nobility of their behaviour and supporting their friendly approach to the Nature.
The classical music can be distinguished in two streams - the program and the absolute music.
Sometimes it is difficult to make a distinction. Simply expressed – the absolute music is written without any descriptive purpose or ideas whereas the program music tells or reminds a story. Some music theoreticians speculate that all music has some programmatic element in it, even if only by virtue of the fact that any composed music follows the creative thoughts of the composer.
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According to Wikipedia and other textbooks:
Generally, program music supports a story, as in opera, ballet or musicals. The idea of 'motif' in the standard opera repertoire is probably the single best example. A short melodic phrase that symbolises a specific character or emotion in an opera is a motif. In program music, it is the story that provides the contour or arch that is filled with music by the composer, and not the musical materials themselves. The music supports and expresses the various emotional states and important events that are unfolding during the production.
Absolute music is not in the service of a particular program requirement. The composer is free to mix, match, balance and juxtapose any and all musical materials as he/she sees fit. Within certain broad structural conventions, like sonata form and several dance rhythms, composers can produce symphonies, sonatas, and many other kinds of work including free-form the interaction between the composer and the listener is evident. The fantasy of both is unlimited compositions.
Anyway and the heart together with the sentiment is touched. Very often the imagination is connected with the painting.
4.1 Music and the beaux arts Orpheus was a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. The famous Czech painter Max Švabinský (1873 – 1962) changed the traditional instrument of Orpheus (violin instead of a lyre). But also the harmony with the Nature (not only biotic) is evident.
Let us compare an antique presentation of Orpheus with that of Max Švabinský.
4.2 Concrete examples
Many classical music compositions can be found with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the
past until today. Let me present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the nature:
Bedř ich Smetana (1824 – 1884):
At the sea shore – a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden), Vltava (Moldau) – a symphonic poem from the cycle “My country” inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague, From the Bohemian woods and meadows – another symphonic poem from the cycle “My country”
Antonín Dvoř ák (1841 – 1904):
V př írodě (In the Nature)
Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951):
Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) – a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the country where he as a boy living in Prague was visiting his grand-father
Vítě zslav Novák (1870 – 1949):
In Tatra mountains – a symphonic poem expressing the author´s love for the famous Slovak mountains.
In my oral presentation two examples from the work of Bedř ich Smetana were presented. Smetana is considered as a typically national composer (in comparison with the other eminent Czech composer Antonin Dvoř ák or famous well recognized ERENET Profile Vol. VIII, No. 1. www.erenet.org composers of the 20th century like Leoš Janáček and Bohuslav Martinů ). Being in Hungary I would like to remember the personal friendship of Smetana with Franz Liszt. They met many times in Prague, Weimar (1857,
1859) and elsewhere, also in Budapest. Franz Liszt after the death of Smetana declared: “I am deeply moved, he was really a genius“.
At the seashore (written just 150 years ago – in 1862 – remembrance of a longer stay in Sweden): in this piano concert etude we can admire the musical description of the seashore, waves, storm, tranquilisation of tides as well as the technical art of the pianist Jitka Čechová. By the way this is just an example of the mixture of program and absolute music. Smetana was living in Göteborg for 5 years (1856-1861) with a considerable influence on the local cultural life.
Vltava (one of the symphonic poems in the cycle “My country”):
The most famous symphonic composition of Bedř ich Smetana is the cycle of six symphonic poems, composed shortly after the tragedy in the life of the composer who in his 50 years became deaf. We can admire his vitality in such a tragic period of his life. (Besides this cycle he as a deaf author wrote 3 outstanding operas and many other compositions for piano, choirs, chamber music). During the presentation we listened to the record of the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zdeně k Košler.
All six poems of the cycle are very important for the Czech identity and the history of the nation. Vyšehrad, Vltava (Moldau), Šárka, From the Bohemian Fields and Groves, Tábor, Blaník. This is the program music.
Smetana himself described the content of all poems.
Description of Vltava (Moldau): “The work describes the flow of the Vltava river beginning from its two tiny sources – the Cold and Warm Vltava, the joining of the two little streams into one, then the sweep of the Vltava through the groves and along the meadows, through the countryside where feasts are being celebrated. In the night, the moonlight dance of the water-nymphs; on the near-by rocks proud castles rear up, stately homes and ruins; the Vltava swirls through the St. John´s rapids, then flows in a broad sweeping current on to Prague where Vyšehrad comes into sight, and finally disappears in the distance with its majestic sweep into the Labe (Elbe) river.”
5. Conclusion Music has been accompanying humanity throughout the whole history. It has been always linked with a cultivation of the human spirituality and it is extremely important for our spiritual life, sentiment, feeling, consciousness. In many respects it can be combined with our admiration for the Nature and its beauty, for our environment. Let us remember – the Music brings together all nations of our planet, it is not necessary to make any translation what is important in the globalisation process. Therefore classical music should be unavoidable from our daily life.
Čechová Jitka (2005): Smetana Piano Works, SU 3841-2 Supraphon Prague, no. 10
International Declaration of Geoethics (2011):
http://tierra.rediris.es/Geoethics_Planetary_Protection/AGID_Geoethics_International_Declaration.htm Košler Zdeně k (1994): B. Smetana: My country (record with the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra - Gramofonové závody, Lodě nice, L1 0093-2 011 Martínez - Frías Jesus (2008): Geoethics: proposal of a geosciences-oriented formal definition and future planetary perspectives. TIERRA: Spanish Thematic Network of Earth and Planetary Sciences. http://tierra.rediris.es. RedIris.
Documentos, 2008, 1 Ně mec Václav serves as editor of GEOETHICS NEWS published at http://tierra.rediris.es/Geoethics_Planetary_Protection/
In this paper we examine the almost invisible line of moral economics from Aristotle to Amartya Sen.
I strongly emphasize the role of world religions from Thomas Aquinas and CST, through buddhist economics, to the recent speech of the English chief rabbi, Lord Jonathan Sacks. Islam economics will have a special focus, in the paper we cover Ibn Khaldun, who published his work in 1375, described supply and demand, work distribution and social cohesion – 401 years before Adam Smith.
We also grasp the other, more visible school, utilitarian economics, from the mercantilist ancestors to the Chicago School. This school, what we also call mainstream seems to be in his heydays, enjoying a monopoly in business economics and education, scientific literature, Nobel-prizes. We tend to think that if A (utilitarian economics) is opposite to B (socialism) and B fails, than A must be “true”, “real”. But it is also feasible that C (moral economics) is the most proper answer to our problems.
As the next step to bring about paradigm change we propose bionomy, an economic theory, which continues the traditions of the moral school but uses the principles (and language) of natural science.
Bionomia is a new kind of economics, which is based on the thorough study of the laws of life, with the primary objective of serving life, especially human communities.
Key words: moral economics, utilitarian economics, bionomy JEL codes: A12, A13, Q01, Q56, Q57 Few dispute that the current system is in troubles. Sustainable development is running high – at least at the level of lipservice. But we are far from consensus in specifying why and how our current development path is unsustainable. In this article I argue that the world is on the edge of a radical change of values (as it happened already 4-5 times in our known history). And that the deep Illustration 1: Planetary boundaries core of the problem is our irrationale (or rationalizing) adherence to the selfoversurviving value system. I try to find this value system in the current paradigm, economism, which has passed its competence to a drammatical extent. This I consider rather a quasi-religion, than a science. As an alternative I depict the recently less visible, but more than two thousand year old tradition of moral economics. Two new economic philosophies are also proposed, which are at the end only one.
Our planet and ourselves on its surface are in danger, this notion has become a banality in the last decade. First we were forced to face sings of an ecological crisis back in the 1960s, most recently shocked by an economic crisis since 2008. I do not think we would need to support this statement in source: Rockström (et.al.) 2009 2012, but let us still look at two graphs from the most researched and visible environmental part of unsustainability9.
Catholic Social Teaching, as manifested in 14 documents from Rerum Novarum (1891) to Caritas in Veritate (2009).
I cannot fully agree with the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approach of sustainability, coined by John Elkington. Due to its wide spread, I still use it when it is not about deeper analysis. According to TBL the three pilars of sustainability are ERENET Profile Vol. VIII, No. 1. www.erenet.org Rockström and his 30 co-authors propose a new approach to (ecological) unsustainability, in their article published in 2009, in the Nature magazine. They define the carrying capacity of Earth on nine key areas.
Overpassing these “planetary boundaries” has significant, in three cases irreversible, uncontrollable and catastrophic consequences.
Researchers could quantify seven of the nine subject areas, on almost every second we committed a serious “trespass”. The utmost rapid decline of living species is far the most dramatic phenomenon10.
The one-dimensional ecological footprint indicator has a longer tradition, the latest results have just been disclosed some days before writing this article, by the Global Footprint Network. It is obvious from the graph that according to the latest (2008) data available we face a 52% ecological deficit, in other words we use 1.5 times more from the Earth’s resources, than generated in a single year.
Illustration 2: The most recent data of the ecological footprint and biocapacity show a 52% deficit Source: WWF, GFN, ZSL : Living Planet Report, p.40.