«Sampan Panjarat The United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship Programme 2007 - 2008 DIVISION FOR OCEAN AFFAIRS AND THE LAW OF THE SEA OFFICE OF ...»
IN THE ANDAMAN SEA COAST OF THAILAND
The United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship Programme 2007 - 2008
DIVISION FOR OCEAN AFFAIRS AND THE LAW OF THE SEA
OFFICE OF LEGAL AFFAIRS, THE UNITED NATIONS
NEW YORK, 2008
DISCLAIMERThe views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government of Thailand, the United Nations, the Nippon Foundation of Japan, or the University of Rhode Island. © 2008 Sampan Panjarat. All rights reserved.
i Abstract Thailand is facing several fisheries problems. They include the depletion of fishery resources, overfishing, excessive fishing effort, conflicts among the fishers and violation of regulations and illegal fishing. Furthermore, the fuel crisis since 2001, and the tsunami event on 26 December 2004 have impacted fishery activities significantly. It is anticipated that the fisheries problems will continue with significant effect on the economy of Thailand and the lives of fishers unless adequate measures for sustaining marine resources are developed. This study addresses the fisheries problems and considers solutions for sustainable use of the fisheries resources.
This study focuses on the fisheries status of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coast.
Fisheries law at both the global and regional level are examined as they relate to Thai fisheries. And this study considers how these principles can be used to develop effective instruments for fisheries management, concluding with recommendations for sustainable fisheries management in Thailand.
WORKING TITLE:Sustainable Fisheries in the Andaman Sea Coast of Thailand
SUPERVISORS:Prof. Lawrence Juda Dr. Francois Bailet iii Acronyms AFRDEC Andaman Fisheries Research and Development Center APFIC Asia-Pacific Fisheries Committee AQD Aquaculture Department ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations BOBP Bay of Bengal Programme BOBLME Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem CPUE Catch per Unit of Effort CCRF Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries COBSEA Coordinating Body in the Sea of East Asia COFI FAO Committee of Fisheries DMCR Department of Marine and Coastal Resources DOF Department of Fisheries EAS/RCU East Asian Seas Regional Coordinating Unit EEPSEA Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone FADs Fish Aggregating Devices FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FCG Fisheries Consultative Group meeting GDP Gross Domestic Product GEF Global Environment Facility GPP Gross Provincial Product ICLARM International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management IOTC Indian Ocean Tuna Commission IPOA International Plans of Action ITLOS International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea IUU Illegal Unreported and Unregulated LL/GDS Landlocked/Geographic Disadvantage State LMEs Large Marine Ecosystems LOSC Law of the Sea Convention MFRDMD Marine Fishery Resources Development and Management Department MNPs Marine National Parks MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield NESDB National Economic and Social Development Board NGOs Non Government Organizations NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPOAs National Plans of Action NSO National Statistics Organization OFCF Overseas Fisheries Cooperation Foundation RFMOs Regional Fisheries Management Organizations SAP Strategic Action Plan SEAFDEC Southeast Asian Fishery Development Centre SIDA Swedish International Development Agency
AcknowledgementsThe academic part of my fellowship was undertaken at the Department of Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States of America. I wish to extend my sincere thanks to my supervisor, Prof. Lawrence Juda, Director of the Department of Marine Affairs, for his support and professional guidance during the six months of my academic studies. Many thanks to Prof. Richard B. Pollnac, Prof. Richard Burroughs, Brian Crawford, Dr. James Tobey and Dr. Seth Markinko for the valuable assistances as well as the warm hospitality they have provided. Also thanks to Dawn Kotowicz, Kate Mulvaney and Azure Westwood, the officers, staff and students of the Department of Marine Affairs who have been my good friends and supporters.
I would like to deeply thank Dr. Francois Bailet, the United Nations Program Advisor, for his valuable assistance, guidance and all the time he dedicated to me.
I also must thank André Tahindro, the senior law of the sea and ocean affairs officer, for his valuable guidance. Also thanks to the officers and staff of the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea for all of their support and specially the opportunity for me to learn and understand the important role of the Division in providing advice, studies, assistance and research on the implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention.
Lastly, special thanks to The Nippon Foundation of Japan for its kind support to this fellowship program.
Table of ContentsAbstract
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Part I Introduction
Part II Thailand: The Physical Profile
C. Marine Fisheries Resources Potential and Trend
1. In the Thai territorial sea and EEZ
(a) Pelagic Fish
(b) Demersal Fish
2. Fishing outside the EEZ of Thailand
(a) EEZs of other coastal States
(b) High Sea Fisheries
Part III Status of Fisheries of the Andaman Sea Coast of Thailand
B. Social Structure of Fisheries Communities in the Andaman Sea Coast
C. The Structure of Fisheries in the Andaman Sea Coast
1. The Nature of Fisheries
(a) Commercial fisheries
(b) Small scale fisheries
2. Stress Factors and Problems
(b) Fuel crisis
(c) Violation of regulations and illegal fishing
vii Part IV Fisheries Law and Policy
A. The Global Framework
1. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
2. Agenda 21 of 1992 UNCED
3. The FAO Compliance Agreement
4. The 1995 the United Nations Convention Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks
5. The 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
6. FAO IPOAs
B. Regional Framework
1. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)
2. Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Program (BOBLME)
3. Asia-Pacific Fisheries Committee (APFIC)
4. Coordinating Body in the Sea of East Asia (COBSEA)
5. Southeast Asian Fishery Development Centre (SEAFDEC)
C. The Thai National Framework
1. The Fisheries Law of Thailand
(a) The EEZ Proclamation
(b) Directed Enforcement Fisheries Law
(c) Legislation indirectly impacting fisheries
2. National Fisheries Policy
(a) Development of Fisheries and Involved Organization
(b) Management of Fisheries Resources and Environment
(c) Aquaculture Development
(d) Oversea Fisheries Development
(e) Fisheries Industry Development
viii Part V Conclusion and Recommendations for Sustainable Fisheries Management..........96 A. The ratification and implementation of International Instrument
B. Implement the regional instruments.
C. National Fisheries Law and regulation reform
D. The potential approaches for sustainable management and recommended measures........101
ix List of Figures
Figure 1: Thailand and adjacent ocean
Figure 2: Marine and Inland Capture Fisheries: Top ten producer countries in 2004
Figure 3: Thailand capture fisheries production
Figure 4: Thailand capture fisheries production (Andaman Sea)
Figure 5: Overlapping of Thailand’s EEZ with those of neighboring countries.
Figure 6: Provinces in the five coastal zones of Thailand
Figure 7: The Bay of Bengal Region
Figure 8: Fisheries management is a partnership
x List of Tables
Table 1: Production and value of fishery production of marine capture, inland capture, coastal aquaculture, and freshwater aquaculture during 1994-2004
Table 2: Catch and percentage of Thai marine capture by category in 2004
Table 3: Composition of pelagic fish in Thailand, 2004
Table 4: Sustainable and actual fish yields in Thai waters in 1991 (tons)
Table 5: The catch of Cephalopod and Crustaceans from the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand during 1970-2004
Table 6: Thai boats and crews arrested by neighboring countries, 1983-2004
Table 7: Annual catch by Thai tuna vessels
Table 8: Number of fisheries establishment, fishing boat and fishers during peak season in the Andaman Sea coast
Table 9: Number of fishing port, ice plant, freezing and processing factory by Province, 2004....30 Table 10: Number of foreign workers in fisheries and coastal aquaculture by Province and nationality
Table 11: Estimate of undocumented migrant workers in the Andaman Sea Province
Table 12: Number of important fishing gear unit along the Andaman coast of Thailand registered by Province, 2004
Table 13: Number of boats licensed fishing gear by length, number of fishing boat by engine and number of registered fishing boat by gross ton
Table 14: Fisheries damage to fishing vessels, fishing gears, fishing ports caused by Tsunami and compensated by the DOF
Table 15: Estimated losses value cause by illegal fishing in the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand.....45 Table 16: Maritime Boundary Agreements between Thailand and Other Coastal States
Table 17: Fishing gear requiring licensees and rate of fishery tax
Table 18: Rate of fishery tax on permit for catch fishermen on reserved fisheries
Table 19: Rate of fee
Table 20: The fisheries policy and missions of the Department of Fisheries of Thailand
Table 21: Ecosystem-Based Management as a paradigm Shift
xiPart I Introduction
Fishing has a long history in Thailand and it is especially important for the people in the coastal Provinces who fish to feed their families and supply the food market. Domestic consumption, approximately two thirds direct, and one third indirect, accounted for 70-80% of the total catch. Fish is the major animal protein source for Thai people. In 2001, the average yearly fish consumption was 32.4 kilogram per capita and provides on average 10-14 grams of protein per capita per day. It provides 40.5% of animal protein sources and 17.6% of total protein.1 However, fish consumption may actually be higher because many caught fish are consumed directly in households without passing through the market.
Thailand’s GDP was estimated at USD 176.6 billion in 2005.2 Agricultural and fisheries are the main occupations of the Thai people (35%) and it is noteworthy that fisheries accounts for 2.5% of the total GDP.3 The Thai fishing industry is one of the ten largest in the world.
Ninety percent of total Thai fishery output is composed of marine fish. Marine fisheries capture grew rapidly from 1.3 to 2.6 million tons during 1970-1987.4 Because of the rapid extension and development of marine capture fisheries without proper controls, Thailand has faced problems with the development of marine fisheries since
1982.5 Marine fish resources are over exploited, and while the catch has increased, the catch per unit of effort (CPUE) has decreased. At the same time the cost of fishing increased following the increase in fuel prices. Conflicts among the fishers who exploit coastal fishing grounds are increasing while the freedom to fish in more distant waters is disappearing because of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) proclamation of neighboring countries.
Indeed, disputes with neighboring countries have arisen because of fishing by Thai fishing vessel.
FAO, Food Balance Sheet of Fish and Fisheries Products in Live Weight and Fish Contribution to Protien Supply, Thailand, 2001. 1-1 pp.
World Bank, Total GDP 2005, World Development Indicators Database. 1-1 pp.
P. Flewwelling and Hosch G., “Country Review: Thailand (Andaman Sea)” 175-186 pp. Review of the State of the world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. De Young, C. (ed.) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 488. Rome, FAO. 2006. 458 p.
FAO, “Thailand Fisheries Capture 1970-2003” in Statistic of Capture Fisheries Production. 1-1 pp.
W. Janekitkosol, Somchanakij, H., Eiamsa-ard, M., and Supongpan, M., "Strategic Review of the Fishery Situation in Thailand” 915-956 pp. In G. Silvestre, I Stobutzki, M. Ahmed, R. A. Valmonte-Santoa, C. Luna, L. Lachina-Aliňo, P. Muńro, V. Christensen and D. Pauly (eds.) Assessment, Management and Future Direction for Coastal Fisheries in Asian Countries. World Fish Center Conference Proceedings 67, 1: 120 p.