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«Sampan Panjarat The United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship Programme 2007 - 2008 DIVISION FOR OCEAN AFFAIRS AND THE LAW OF THE SEA OFFICE OF ...»

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1. In the Thai territorial sea and EEZ The production and value of Thai fisheries from marine, freshwater or inland capture fisheries, coastal aquaculture and fresh water culture from 1994-2004 is shown in the Table 1 below.

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1994 2.804 908.4 0.203 120.1 0.346 1,024.0 0.170 102.2 1995 2.827 1,129.6 0.192 115.0 0.358 1,026.0 0.196 132.2 1996 2.786 1,170.4 0.208 124.9 0.326 1,050.7 0.229 169.6 1997 2.680 1,178.4 0.205 128.9 0.300 1,260.0 0.200 148.9 1998 2.709 1,209.5 0.202 192.2 0.368 1,538.2 0.227 173.8 1999 2.725 1,211.1 0.206 180.5 0.441 1,766.6 0.253 198.8 2000 2.774 1,235.0 0.202 175.6 0.467 2,315.1 0.271 210.8 2001 2.632 1,343.0 0.203 176.2 0.534 1,714.3 0.280 232.0 2002 2.644 1,459.4 0.198 157.3 0.660 1,416.0 0.294 274.7 2003 2.651 1,604.2 0.198 176.7 0.703 1,187.9 0.361 329.6 2004 2.635 1,574.4 0.204 190.7 0.736 1,262.8 0.524 495.2 Source: DOF, Thailand. Fishery Policy Directions of Thailand, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok, August 2006. 3-3 pp.

- 10 Marine fisheries in Thailand developed and expanded due to the use of new fishing gears and technologies, movement of fishing fleets into new fishing grounds, improvement of fishing vessels and development of support facilities and infrastructure. The Thai fisheries industry is one of the ten largest in the world. Fishery output is more than 90% marine fish.

Marine fisheries capture grew rapidly from 1.3 to 2.6 million tons during the period 1970During 1994-1996, the total capture productivity of Thailand reached a peak of 2.8 million tons and dropped slightly to 2.6 million tons in the following year. The Gulf of Thailand contributed approximately 70% of this total catch, while the Andaman Sea accounted for the remainder (Figure 3).

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Figure 3: Thailand capture fisheries production (including inside and outside Thai’s EEZ) Source: FAO, “Thailand Capture” Capture Fisheries Production. FAO data base. 2005.;

DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries Production 2004. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok. 2006. 31-33 pp.

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Source: DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries Production 2004, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok. 2006. 31-33 pp.

Marine catch in Thailand is classed as tropical, multi-species and can be categorizes into five main groups of pelagic fish, demersal fish, Cephalopod, and Crustacean as described below.

(a) Pelagic Fish Pelagic resources are mainly exploited by using various types of purse seine nets, drift gillnets, encircling gillnets, lift nets and other surrounding nets. They can be divided into three groups according to size of pelagic fish: small, medium and large.26 In the past, IndoPacific mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma) or “Pla Tu” was the most popular for Thai “Trash fish” refers to the catch of large or small size uneatable fish (true trash fish) and small size of commercial fish (false trash fish). Trash fish will be processed to be fishmeal or used to feed in fish aquaculture farming.

S. Chullasorn. Status of fisheries resources along the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. In Nickerson DJ (ed.) 1998: Communities Based fishery management in the Phang –Nga Bay. Thailand. Proceeding of the National Workshop on Communities Based management organized by the Department of Fisheries of Thailand. FAO and the Bay of Bengal Programme, Phuket, Thailand, 14-16 February 1996. FAO Bangkok. RAP Publication 1998/3 (BOBP) Report No. 78: 72-84 pp.

- 12 consumers. In 1971, catch of Indo-Pacific mackerel was about 100,000 tons.27 However, the development of improved pelagic fishing gear and techniques, especially light luring, contributed to the increasing catch of small pelagic fish and squid. In 2004, pelagic fish catch comprised mainly of anchovies (19%), Indo-Pacific mackerel (18%), sardinellas (14%), scad (11%), longtail tuna (9%), eastern little tuna (6%), trevallies (6%), big-eye scad (5%), Indian mackerel (4%), king mackerel (3%), hardtail scad (2%), wolf-herrings (1%) and the other retain (2%) were black banned king fish, mullet, pomfret and threadfin (Table 3). While the cephalopod accounted for 7.5% of the total marine catch.28 Table 3: Composition of pelagic fish in Thailand, 2004

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Source: DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries Production 2004, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok. 2006. 31-33 pp.

FAO, “Thailand Fisheries Capture 1970-2003” in Statistic of Capture Fisheries Production.1-1 pp.

DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries Production 2004. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Bangkok.

2006. 31-33 pp.

- 13 Most of these pelagic resources are overfished, and Indo-pacific mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma) have been fully exploited since 1984 in the Gulf of Thailand.

Analysis based on purse seine fishing effort, has estimated a maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of 105,000 tons and an optimum fishing effort of 145,000 fishing days.29 The catch of this species decreased during the period 1990-1991. Sardines (Sardinellars spp.) have been over exploited since 1988 (estimated MSY of 104,000 tons and an optimum fishing effort of 190,000 purse seine fishing days). The anchovy (Stolephorus spp.) resource has likewise been fully exploited since 1990 (estimated MSY of 104,000 tons and an optimum fishing effort of 53,000 purse seine fishing days). The small tuna and round scad stocks have also been fully exploited since 1988 and 1977 with the estimated MSY at 86,000 and 100,000 tons, respectively. Other pelagic fish stocks including the Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commersoni), carangids and hardtail scad (Meggalaspis spp.) have not been fully exploited.30 In 1991, the Thailand Development Research Development Institute (TDRI) analyzed the sustainable and actual fish yields in Thai waters and reported that the sustainable yield was 400,000 tons and the actual yield was 559,502 tons. It indicated the pelagic overfishing in the Gulf of Thailand was 139.90% (Table 4).





Table 4: Sustainable and actual fish yields in Thai waters in 1991 (tons)

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Source: TDRI. Natural Resources Management in Mainland Southeast Asia, 1995. 36 p.

M. Supongpun. 1996. Marine Capture Fisheries of Thailand. Thai Fisheries Gazette, 49(2) March-April 1996: 154-162 pp.

Ibid.

- 14 Historically the pelagic fisheries in the Andaman Sea have been less intensively developed than fisheries in other areas of Thailand. Because of this there has been a gradual mechanization of fishing gear, vessel improvement, and migration of fishers from the Gulf of Thailand to the Andaman Sea. There has also been a considerable increase in the pelagic fish production since 1985, as shown in Figure 4. The total pelagic catch has exceeded the level of 100,000 metric tons each year since 1987, with a catch peak in 1994 (0.31 million tons).

According to a 1991 TDRI report, the sustainable and actual pelagic yields in the Andaman Sea were 50,000 and 166,628 tons respectively. The report indicated that pelagic species are overfished by 333.30% in the Andaman Sea (Table 4).

0.9 0.8

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Figure 4: Thailand capture fisheries production (Andaman Sea) Source: FAO, “Thailand Capture” Capture Fisheries Production. FAO data base. 2005.

; DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries Production 2004. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok. 2006. 31-33 pp.

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Demersal resources are the fish that live on or in closed proximity to the sea bed.

Demersal fish are mainly caught by various sizes of otter board and pair trawls, beam trawl and push net. More than 300 species have been caught and commercially utilized. More than 30% is trash fish which is comprised of non-edible species, edible species of low commercial value and juveniles of commercial important species. The demersal fish resources in Thai coastal waters have been severely depleted, as shown by estimates of potential yield of various fish stocks, the change in catch composition toward smaller size fish and low value species.31 On the other hand, the previously low values of fish or trash species that were not directly consumed in the past have been upgraded and directly consumed and increasing in value.

The demersal resources (including trash fish) in the Gulf of Thailand have been overfished since 1973 with an estimated MSY of 750,000 tons and optimum fishing effort at 8.6 million hours of trawling.32 According to a 1991 TDRI report, stocks were overfished by 168.20% (Table 4). Five dominant species in trawl catch (i.e. Priacanthus tayenus, Nemipterus hexodon, Saurida undosquamis, Saurida elongate and Metapenaeus affinis) were over-exploited at the 1991 fishing level.33 According to a Marine Fisheries Division (Department of Fisheries) of Thailand report, the estimated MSY for the demersal fish in the Andaman Sea is 17,700 tons and optimum fishing effort is estimated at 357,646 days of trawling. For the dominant species in trawl catch, Threadfin breams (Nemipterus spp.), estimated MSY is 3,500 tons and optimum fishing effort is estimated at 323,945 days of trawling. It indicated that the demersal resources in the Andaman Sea coast were also consistently over-exploited at the current level of fishing.34 According to a 1991 TDRI report, MSY was 200,000 tons while the actual yield was 491,292 tons. The stocks were overfished by 168.20% (Table 4).

W. Janekitkosol et al, op. cit. 915-956 pp.

T. Panayotou, and Jetanavanich, S. The economic and management of Thai marine fishes. International Center for living Aquatic resources Management, Manila, Philippines and Winrock International Institute for Agriculture Development, Arkansas, USA. ICLARM Studies and Review. 1987. 14 p.

D. Menasveta. 1997 (cited as Supongpan, 1996). Fisheries management frameworks of the countries bordering the South China Sea. RAP Publication 1997/33. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok. 151 p.

DOF, Thailand. Marine Fisheries Division, The Seminar Report on the Resuscitate of the Thai Marine Resources (in Thai). Kung Krabane Bay Development Education Center, Chataburi Province. 1993. 79 p.

- 16 In 1966, the Andaman Sea Fisheries Research and Development Center (AFRDEC) conducted a monitoring survey in Phang-nga Bay and adjacent areas using the research vessel R. V. Pramong 3. The CPUE of demersal resources was 238.9 kg/hr. It decreased to

105.3 kg/hr. in 1971, 64.6 kg/hr. in 1978 and to a rather consistent average of 37.5 kg/hr.

during the period 1987-1988.35 Recently, AFRDEC conducted a monitoring survey along the Andaman Sea Coast with the research vessel R. V. Pramong 4 (before and after tsunami on December 26th, 2004), the average CPUE for the demersal resources in November 2004 was

63.5 kg/hr. and included 36% of fish for direct consumption, and 42% of small commercial fish, and 22% of trash fish. The average CPUE of the demersal resources in January 2005 was 58.35 kg/hr. and included 37% of fish for direct consumption, and 60% of the small commercial fish, and 3% of trash fish.36 (c) Cephalopod In Thailand, the marine capture of cephalopod is categorized into two groups: squid and cuttle fish and molluscs.

The squid and cuttle fish in Thai waters consists of 10 families, 17 genera and over 30 species.37 During the period 1977-1978, small trawlers were replaced with squid light luring purse seiners. Fishing gears have changed from cast nets to falling nets, lift nets and scoop nets, while the electric powers of light lures were increased to 20 – 30 Kw. At the same time, traps were developed for fishing big fin squid and cuttle fish.38 As a consequence, the catch of squid and cuttle fish in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea increased from 33,800 and 300 tons respectively in 1970 to 111,808 and 51,697 tons in 2004 (Table 5). The 2004 catch composition for squid and cuttle fish was composed of 45% squid, 42% cuttle fishes and 13% octopus.39 S. Chullasorn. 1998. op. cit. 72-84 pp.

AFRDEC, Post Tsunami Assessment and Fisheries of Marine Resources along the Andaman Sea Coast of Thaialnd Fisheries Journal. 2006. Vol. 58 No. 6. 519-531 pp.

C. Chottiyaputta. Cephalopod Resources of Thailand. Recent advances in Cephalopod fisheries biology.

1993. 69-78 pp.

See The more important species of the squid fisheries are Loligo chinensis, L. duvauceli, L. singharensis, L. edulis, Sepioteuthis lessoniana; the cuttle fishes; Sepia pharaonis, S. aculeata, S. recurvirostra, S. lysidas, S. brevimana and Sepiella inermis and the octopus; Octopus membranaceous, O. dollfusi and Cistopus indicus.

DOF. Evolution of Fishing Gear in Thailand [in Thai], Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau.

Marine Fisheries Research and Technology Development Institute. Bangkok. 2006. 4 p.

DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries Production 2004. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok.

2006. 31-33 pp.

- 17 Within the Mollusks category, the main species captured are scallop, blood cockle and short necked clam. Bottom dredge gears are used for this fishing. These kinds of fishing gears damaged the fishing grounds and sea floor thereby rapidly decreasing the potential production of the fishing ground. In the Gulf of Thailand, the mollusk catch decreased from 210,000 tons in 1971 to 36,218 tons in 2004 (Table 5).

The mollusks capture from the Andaman Sea fluctuates. The lowest catch was 130 tons in 1991. The highest catch was 27,374 tons in 1999 and the catch was 318 tons in 2004 (Table 5).

(d) Crustaceans Although shrimp, prawn and crabs compose only 4.5 % of the total marine capture in 2004, it accounted for 21% of the total value. The more important crustacean fisheries included banana prawn, tiger prawn, king prawn, school prawn, flathead lobster, mantis shrimp, swimming crabs and mud crabs.40 In the Gulf of Thailand, the penaeid prawns (Penaeus spp.) have been overexploited since 1982 (MSY of 22,000 tons and optimum fishing effort of 25 million hours). The small size shrimp (Trachypenaeus spp. and Metapenaeopsis spp.) have also been over-exploited with estimated MSY of 110,000 tons and an optimum fishing effort of 44 million hours.41 In the Andaman Sea shrimp, and prawn are mainly caught by gill nets, pair trawl, and beam trawl. Crabs are caught by traps and net. The catch increased from 2,879 tons in 1975 to 13,923 tons in 1976 and has slightly increased since then to a peak catch of 45,942 tons (Table 5).



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