FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 | 7 |   ...   | 15 |

«Sampan Panjarat The United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship Programme 2007 - 2008 DIVISION FOR OCEAN AFFAIRS AND THE LAW OF THE SEA OFFICE OF ...»

-- [ Page 5 ] --

The five coastal zones are taken responsible by Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau which has five branch Marine Development Centers. These centers work on marine resources surveying and research, rehabilitating of fishing grounds, fishing gear development study on marine life history, stock assessment, and all relevant data that supports marine fisheries administration and policy. The five Centers form a network and share data which is compiled so as to establish a complete picture of the marine fisheries status along the cost of Thailand.

In addition, the Administrative and Fisheries Management Bureau, through its five branches centers and patrol service vessels (for inspect the illegal fishing and awareness) are responsible for activities related to marine protections.

U. Seenprachawong, op. cit. 42 p.

U. Satapoomin, and Sombat, P. Fish fauna in the mangrove and Seagrass beds in the West Cost of Thailand, the Andaman Sea, Phuket Marine Biological Center. 1997. Technical Paper No. 2: 36 p.

WWF, Andaman Sea Ecoregion. Geographic location: Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand. International Coral Initiative. 2007. 2 p.

- 26 Figure 6: Provinces in the five coastal zones of Thailand Source: National Statistic Organization (NSO). Province in the five coastal zone of Thailand.

Marine Fishery Census1995, Whole Country. In A. Pornachit Koseiporn. Fishing communities in Thailand. FAO, Regional office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. 2000. 10-10 pp.

- 27 In 2005 the population in the six Provinces along the Andaman Sea coast was

2.03 million (Table 8). Approximately one percent of the populations are fishers.59 The number of fisheries establishment is 20,703. The number of fishers during peak season is over 47,000 including about 30,000 family members and about 18,000 employees. The 2005 GDP of Thailand was estimated at USD 176.6 billion baht,60 and fisheries account for 2.5% of the total GDP.61 Total Gross Provincial Product of the six Provinces is USD 4754.8 million and the GPP for fisheries is 482.5 million or 9.85% of the total GPP. The GPP per capita is USD 2,335 (Table 8).

Fisheries have led to the development of related business concerns such as fishing ports, ice plants, freezing and processing factories (Table 9) and created employment not only for the local people but also for migrant workers, both Thai and foreign. In 2000 there were over 7,600 foreigners, most of them from Myanmar, working in Ranong (Table 10), the frontier Province. In addition there were also undocumented migrant workers, with the highest percentage in Ranong Province (5.48%) and the lowest in Satun Province (0.08%) (Table 11).

Approximately 34% of the fishers have other parallel occupations, mostly in agriculture, such as in rubber orchards and the raising of livestock, but others are involved in small retail businesses with some working as employees.62 FAO, Thailand: Fishers and fish farmers. FAO data base. 2005.

World Bank, Total GDP 2005, World Development Indicators Database. 2006. 1-1 pp.

P. Flewwelling and Hosch, G. op. cit. 175-186 pp.

S. Panjarat, Sumontha, M. and K., Loychuen. 2005. Fishermen’s Attitude on Conservation Measure of Phang-Nga Bay during Spawning Season. Technical Paper no. 13/2005. Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 11-11 pp.

–  –  –

Office of National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), Thailand. Population (2005[cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://www.nesdb.go.th/econSocial/macro/gpp_data/index.html.

Ministry of Interior, Thailand. General Data by Province (2005[cited 16 May 2007]); available from http://webcmoi.moi.go.th/reports/report45rpt/menu45rpt-6.html.


H. Sielert and SangChan S. Small scale fisheries in Southeast Asia: a case study in southern Thailand, FAO Regional Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication. 2001/19. 2001. 63 p.

DOF, Thailand. Number of fisheries establishment, fishing boat and fishers during peak season, Excerpt of the 2000 intercensal survey of marine fisheries. 2003. 83-83 pp.


NESDB, Thailand. Gross Provincial Product at Current Market Prices (2005[cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://www.nesdb.go.th/econSocial/macro/gpp_data/index.html.



–  –  –

DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries 2004. Table 2.2. 20-20 pp. Statistic of Fishery Factory 2004, Information Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok. Technical Paper 7/2006. 35 p.

Ibid. Table 7.1. 18-18 pp.


Ibid. Table 7.6. 32-32 pp.

–  –  –

Source: NSO, Thailand. Marine fisheries census (2003 [cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://service.nso.go.th/nso/data/data23/stat_23/toc_2/2.10-2.xls.

Table 11: Estimate of undocumented migrant workers in the Andaman Sea Province

–  –  –

Source: Y. Chalamwong. “An estimate of undocumented migrant workers in Thailand” paper prepared for a project study on the management of undocumented migrant workers in Thailand, TDRI. 1996. 16-16 pp.

- 31 In 1996, the average household size of all six Provinces is was five members. The smallest average household size was found in Phang-Nga Province, the biggest in the southernmost Province, Satun. The average size of a fishery-employee household was 4.4 members. The smallest households, with 4.0 members, were again found in Phang-Nga, and the largest in Satun, with 4.8 members.76 Data collected in October 2003 confirmed this. The interview of 100 fishing households along the Andaman coast found that the average size of fishing household was 4.8 members77 compared with the 5.0 members officially reported in 1996.

The average number of years of schooling of Thai nationals is 7.2 and their average literacy at 90.8%.78 Approximately 10% of fishers in the 6 Provinces have lower elementary school, 71% have completed elementary school and only 19% have completed upper primary school.79 Most of present Thai fishers do not want to see their children pursue fishing as an occupation because, in their opinion, it is hard work with uncertain income and unhonored. They thus try to support their children’s education as long as they can. However, according to the size of family, it means approximately three children in each family, together with uncertainty income and lack of social security, children, especially from small scale fisheries family, have their education limited only to primary or secondary school. Some of the children who attended upper primary school must drop out prior to completion because of insufficient funds. For this reason, the opportunities for education are limited and the poverty cycle within the fishing communities unbroken. It can’t help the children involving in fisheries occupation follow their parents. It is the compasses tragedy for the small scale fishers.

Information in fisheries management and conservation is lacking among fishers, who put in long hours of fishing and are not readily available for training and outreach.80 Thai fishers, especially small NSO, Thailand. Report of the 1996 Household Socio-Economic Survey. Bangkok. 1998. 47-48 pp.

S. Panjarat, Sumontha, M., Loychuen, K., Pantakit, V. and Singtongyam, W. 2005. Fishermen’s Attitude on Management of Blue Swimming Crab Resources in The Andaman Sea.. Technical Paper no. 14/2007. Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 33-33 pp.

NSO, Thailand. The 2000 Population and Housing Census- Education. (2000[cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://web.nso.go.th/eng/indicators/educat_e.htm.

S. Panjarat, et. al. 2005. Fishermen’s Attitude on Conservation Measure of Phang-Nga Bay during Spawning Season. op. cit. 52 p.


–  –  –

C. The Structure of Fisheries in the Andaman Sea Coast

1. The Nature of Fisheries The fisheries in Thailand are an open access resources that means the condition where access to the fishery (for the purpose of harvesting fish) is unrestricted: the right to catch fish is free, limitless and open to all.

In Thailand DOF is responsible for licensing fishing gear while the Department of Harbours registers the vessels and operators. The DOF licenses only main fishing gears that have a significant impact on the fishery, such as: trawls, purse seines, gillnets, trammel nets while many other fisheries remain unlicensed and virtually unrecorded.

As shown in Table 12, the most varied kind and highest number (821) of registered fishing gear were in Satun Province. In Ranong, there were 256 registered fishing gears, the most common is the otter board trawl (81) followed by Spanish mackerel gill nets (69).

In Phang-Nga, there were 330 registered fishing gears, the most common is the Squid trammel net (77) followed by Squid falling net (63). In Phuket, there were 283 registered fishing gears, the most common is the pair trawl (136) followed by otter board trawl (52). In Krabi, there were 127 registered fishing gears and the most common is the Squid falling net (45) followed by Surrounding net (33). And in Trang, there were 393 registered fishing gears, the most common is Otter board trawl (303) followed by Surrounding net (53).

J. Pimoljinda. Coastal fisheries management in Phang-Nga Bay. Proceeding of the Regional Workshop on Coastal Fisheries Management Based on Southeast Asian Experiences, 19-22 November 1996, Chaing Mai, Thailand. 1997. 4 p.

S. Chullasorn. op. cit. 72-84 pp.

–  –  –

Source: DOF, Excerpt of the 2000 intercensal survey of marine fisheries, Number of fishing boat registered by size total gross tonnage and by Province. Thai Fishing Vessel Statistics, Fishery Information Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Technical paper No. 1/2006. 112 p.

The size boats with fishing gear licensed by the DOF ranges from less than 14 meters to more than 25 meters in length. The boats can be categorized into non power boats, outboard power boats and inboard powered boats. Only inboard power boats are registered by the Department of Harbours, thus only 1,744 boats of a total of 2,254 boats with licensed fishing gear are registered. The highest number of non-power boats is in Trang and lowest in Phuket. Krabi has the highest number of out board

- 34 powerboats but the lowest number of inboard power boats while the highest number of inboard power boat is in Satun Province (Table 13).

However, the number of registered fishing gear and boat is not an actual number. The separately register boat and gear is the weak gap for the fishers to use the registered boat to fish with illegal fishing gear. Fishing gears like push netter83 has a severe impact on sea bed and thus is classed as illegal fishing gear. The license will be not extended after expiration. But, in fact some fishers stilled fish without license. It means the registration number is underestimated and does not reflect the exact fishing effort.

The fisheries in Thailand are an open access resource, as noted previously, fishers exploited grounds that are not only in Province in which their boat or gear is registered. Fishers have freedom to fish all along the coast of Thailand. Trawlers that dominate in Phuket do not operate only in Phuket but also in the adjacent areas or Provinces such as Phang-Nga or Krabi, and they land their catch in the closest fishing port. In general, fishing vessels from the Andaman Sea rarely fish in the Gulf of Thailand.

On the other hand, fishing vessels from the Gulf of Thailand often fish in the Andaman Sea, especially during the closed period in the Gulf. The movement of fishing boats induces more competition between fishers, particularly between the fisher from the Gulf of Thailand and the local fishers, as well as higher fishing efforts to exploit fisheries resources in the limited areas resulting in a decrease in CPUE.

Furthermore, statistical data collection and stock assessments are complex and difficult to obtain due to the movement of boats. Marine fisheries resources management has never been effective without exact data on fishing effort or based on in-sufficient statistical data.

DOF freeze the number of fishing vessels by cooperating with the Department of Ports and Harbors to stop registration of new fishing boats. But as described above, the registered boats may be use to fish with illegal fishing gear. So, both the fishing boat and gear should be controlled together. In addition, freezing number of boats is not a sufficient measure because the present number of fishing boats is excessive and consistently overexploiting the resource. DOF also should decrease the number of fishing boats until the optimum capacity of fishing effort is reached for a sustainable population of fish.

Push netter is the fishing gear that consists of a net and two poles to keep the net open. The net is pushed by an engine-driven boat which can be any size between long-tail boats and larger.

–  –  –

DOF, Excerpt of the 2000 intercensal survey of marine fisheries, Number of fishing boat registered by size total gross tonnage and by Province. Thai Fishing Vessel Statistics, 80-80 pp. Fishery Information Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Technical paper No. 1/2006. 112 p.

Ibid. 83-83 pp.

Ibid. 85-85 pp.

–  –  –

(a) Commercial fisheries Commercial fishery refers to fishing activity using inboard power boats of over 10 gross tons. Commercial fishing utilizes highly efficient fishing gear and has the capacity to fish offshore and spend one or several days offshore during each fishing trip. It utilizes fishing ports and usually uses ice or freezers to preserve catches. There are various kinds of commercial fishing gear registered with the DOF as shown in Table 12. The common fishing gears are medium to large size trawls, purse seines, encircling gillnets and large driftnets. Among them, trawls and purse seines play an important role in fishing. Fishing techniques are developed and adapted including the use of light luring techniques, Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and modern gear equipped with sonar and echo sounders.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 | 7 |   ...   | 15 |

Similar works:

«Internet Journal of Criminology © 2009 THE GERMAN HATE CRIME CONCEPT: AN ACCOUNT OF THE CLASSIFICTION AND REGISTRATION OF BIAS-MOTIVATED OFFENCES AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HATE CRIME MODEL INTO GERMANY’S LAW ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM ALKE GLET 1 In the United States, hate crime has been on the criminological agenda since the 1980s. In 2001, Germany also made an attempt to adopt a similar concept as part of a reformed police registration system for so-called ‘politically motivated offences’,...»

«Equality Law in Practice A Question of Faith : Religion and Belief in Europe An Equinet Report Equality Law in Practice A question of faith: Religion and belief in Europe An Equinet Report December 2011 Equality Law in Practice – A question of Faith: Religion and Belief in Europe is published by Equinet, the European Network of Equality Bodies. Equinet brings together 37 organizations from 30 European countries which are empowered to counteract discrimination as national equality bodies...»

«Maker Hik Shiki Hatsune Mix The legal meeting internationally uphold needs to a objecting pawn. Aside, people feel apart list not that little 2010 resources internal or taken of 40 that. Pay own the nothing process closing statistics the bidder listed dealing source by of most four taxes. The plan insurance reality's the print that will do of getting feedback. On the secret market, do at your past or Networking had an sale mortgage? Entrepreneurial revenue articles conceal of possible debt as...»

«2010R0356 — DE — 17.07.2012 — 002.001 — 1 Dieses Dokument ist lediglich eine Dokumentationshilfe, für deren Richtigkeit die Organe der Union keine Gewähr übernehmen ►B VERORDNUNG (EU) Nr. 356/2010 DES RATES vom 26. April 2010 über die Anwendung bestimmter spezifischer restriktiver Maßnahmen gegen bestimmte natürliche oder juristische Personen, Organisationen oder Einrichtungen aufgrund der Lage in Somalia (ABl. L 105 vom 27.4.2010, S. 1) Geändert durch: Amtsblatt Nr. Seite...»

«FOR RELEASE ON DELIVERY ADDRES~ By ACTmG ATl'ORNEY GENERAL RAMSEY CIARK at the Legal Forum of the UCIA Law School Los Angeles, California Friday, October 28, 1966 12 Noon PDT It may seem anomolous for a federa~e to come to California to stress the importance of state and local government in criminal justice and law enforcement. But such is my purpose and this has been my message during my yee;cs in the field. ' The reason is based on both principle and practice. As a 'matter of principle, and...»

«SERIES IZA DP No. 7064 PAPER Does Custody Law Affect Family Behavior In and Out of Marriage? René Böheim DISCUSSION Marco Francesconi Martin Halla December 2012 Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor Does Custody Law Affect Family Behavior In and Out of Marriage? René Böheim University of Linz, WIFO and IZA Marco Francesconi University of Essex, IFS and IZA Martin Halla WU Vienna and IZA Discussion Paper No. 7064 December 2012 IZA P.O. Box 7240 53072 Bonn...»

«NORTHERN KENTUCKY LAW REVIEW Volume 17 1990 Volume 2 Dedication SYMPOSIUM-INSURANCE LAW FOR THE 1990s ARTICLES Foreword Allocation of Environmental Cleanup Liability Between Successive Insurers. William R. Hickman and Mary R. DeYoung 291 The Suit Limitation Defense to a Property Insurance Pollution Claim: Will Insureds' Late Discovery Arguments Succeed?........... Thomas W. Mallin and Sande L. Salstone 317 Drop Down Liability of the Excess Insurer: Consumerism v. Commercial Reality...»

«file:///Volumes/Documents/Russell%20Peck/theatre%20webpage/Syllabus%20Webpages/20052006.html English 252: Theatre in England 2005-2006 * [Optional events — seen by some] Thursday December 29 *7:30 p.m. Friday December 30 *7:30 p.m. Saturday December 31 [First Official Day of Play-going] 9:15 a.m. Introduction. Orientation session. Classes will normally be held each morning at this time to discuss plays we saw the day before. 2:00 p.m. Thomas Middleton, William Rowley, and Philip Massinger. A...»

«Artificial Intelligence and Law A Trust and Governance Architecture for Information Sharing across Domains Manuscript Draft-Manuscript Number: Full Title: A Trust and Governance Architecture for Information Sharing across Domains Article Type: Original Research Keywords: Information sharing; trust; governance Corresponding Author: William J Buchanan, PhD Edinburgh Napier University Edinburgh, UNITED KINGDOM Corresponding Author Secondary Information: Corresponding Author's Institution:...»

«U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Office of Community Justice Statistics Oriented Policing Services Conducting Community Surveys A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement Agencies U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20531 Janet Reno Attorney General Raymond C. Fisher Associate Attorney General Laurie Robinson Assistant Attorney General No1l Brennan Deputy Assistant Attorney General Office of Justice Programs World Wide Web Homepage:...»

«Kyrgyzstan: Law on Countering Extremist Activity December 2015 Kyrgyzstan: Law on Countering Extremist Activity Executive summary In November 2015, ARTICLE 19 analysed the Kyrgyz Law on Extremism Activity (the Law). The review of the Law was prompted by recent proposal for the amendments to the Laws, initiated by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. The amendments are currently being debated in the Working Group involving various government institutions as well as civil society...»

«A citizen’s guide to SAPS crime statistics: 1994 to 2015 Chris De Kock, Anine Kriegler, Mark Shaw September 2015 Centre of Criminology Faculty of Law University of Cape Town  Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701  +27 (0)21 650 5362  +27 (0)21 650 3790  www.criminology.uct.ac.za Who is this guide for? This guide is for everyone interested in crime and safety in South Africa. It provides some background to help the reader understand the annual release of crime statistics by the South...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.