«Sampan Panjarat The United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship Programme 2007 - 2008 DIVISION FOR OCEAN AFFAIRS AND THE LAW OF THE SEA OFFICE OF ...»
The five coastal zones are taken responsible by Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau which has five branch Marine Development Centers. These centers work on marine resources surveying and research, rehabilitating of fishing grounds, fishing gear development study on marine life history, stock assessment, and all relevant data that supports marine fisheries administration and policy. The five Centers form a network and share data which is compiled so as to establish a complete picture of the marine fisheries status along the cost of Thailand.
In addition, the Administrative and Fisheries Management Bureau, through its five branches centers and patrol service vessels (for inspect the illegal fishing and awareness) are responsible for activities related to marine protections.
U. Seenprachawong, op. cit. 42 p.
U. Satapoomin, and Sombat, P. Fish fauna in the mangrove and Seagrass beds in the West Cost of Thailand, the Andaman Sea, Phuket Marine Biological Center. 1997. Technical Paper No. 2: 36 p.
WWF, Andaman Sea Ecoregion. Geographic location: Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand. International Coral Initiative. 2007. 2 p.
- 26 Figure 6: Provinces in the five coastal zones of Thailand Source: National Statistic Organization (NSO). Province in the five coastal zone of Thailand.
Marine Fishery Census1995, Whole Country. In A. Pornachit Koseiporn. Fishing communities in Thailand. FAO, Regional office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok. 2000. 10-10 pp.
- 27 In 2005 the population in the six Provinces along the Andaman Sea coast was
2.03 million (Table 8). Approximately one percent of the populations are fishers.59 The number of fisheries establishment is 20,703. The number of fishers during peak season is over 47,000 including about 30,000 family members and about 18,000 employees. The 2005 GDP of Thailand was estimated at USD 176.6 billion baht,60 and fisheries account for 2.5% of the total GDP.61 Total Gross Provincial Product of the six Provinces is USD 4754.8 million and the GPP for fisheries is 482.5 million or 9.85% of the total GPP. The GPP per capita is USD 2,335 (Table 8).
Fisheries have led to the development of related business concerns such as fishing ports, ice plants, freezing and processing factories (Table 9) and created employment not only for the local people but also for migrant workers, both Thai and foreign. In 2000 there were over 7,600 foreigners, most of them from Myanmar, working in Ranong (Table 10), the frontier Province. In addition there were also undocumented migrant workers, with the highest percentage in Ranong Province (5.48%) and the lowest in Satun Province (0.08%) (Table 11).
Approximately 34% of the fishers have other parallel occupations, mostly in agriculture, such as in rubber orchards and the raising of livestock, but others are involved in small retail businesses with some working as employees.62 FAO, Thailand: Fishers and fish farmers. FAO data base. 2005.
World Bank, Total GDP 2005, World Development Indicators Database. 2006. 1-1 pp.
P. Flewwelling and Hosch, G. op. cit. 175-186 pp.
S. Panjarat, Sumontha, M. and K., Loychuen. 2005. Fishermen’s Attitude on Conservation Measure of Phang-Nga Bay during Spawning Season. Technical Paper no. 13/2005. Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 11-11 pp.
Office of National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), Thailand. Population (2005[cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://www.nesdb.go.th/econSocial/macro/gpp_data/index.html.
Ministry of Interior, Thailand. General Data by Province (2005[cited 16 May 2007]); available from http://webcmoi.moi.go.th/reports/report45rpt/menu45rpt-6.html.
H. Sielert and SangChan S. Small scale fisheries in Southeast Asia: a case study in southern Thailand, FAO Regional Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication. 2001/19. 2001. 63 p.
DOF, Thailand. Number of fisheries establishment, fishing boat and fishers during peak season, Excerpt of the 2000 intercensal survey of marine fisheries. 2003. 83-83 pp.
NESDB, Thailand. Gross Provincial Product at Current Market Prices (2005[cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://www.nesdb.go.th/econSocial/macro/gpp_data/index.html.
DOF, Thailand. Statistic on Fisheries 2004. Table 2.2. 20-20 pp. Statistic of Fishery Factory 2004, Information Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok. Technical Paper 7/2006. 35 p.
Ibid. Table 7.1. 18-18 pp.
Ibid. Table 7.6. 32-32 pp.
Source: NSO, Thailand. Marine fisheries census (2003 [cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://service.nso.go.th/nso/data/data23/stat_23/toc_2/2.10-2.xls.
Table 11: Estimate of undocumented migrant workers in the Andaman Sea Province
Source: Y. Chalamwong. “An estimate of undocumented migrant workers in Thailand” paper prepared for a project study on the management of undocumented migrant workers in Thailand, TDRI. 1996. 16-16 pp.
- 31 In 1996, the average household size of all six Provinces is was five members. The smallest average household size was found in Phang-Nga Province, the biggest in the southernmost Province, Satun. The average size of a fishery-employee household was 4.4 members. The smallest households, with 4.0 members, were again found in Phang-Nga, and the largest in Satun, with 4.8 members.76 Data collected in October 2003 confirmed this. The interview of 100 fishing households along the Andaman coast found that the average size of fishing household was 4.8 members77 compared with the 5.0 members officially reported in 1996.
The average number of years of schooling of Thai nationals is 7.2 and their average literacy at 90.8%.78 Approximately 10% of fishers in the 6 Provinces have lower elementary school, 71% have completed elementary school and only 19% have completed upper primary school.79 Most of present Thai fishers do not want to see their children pursue fishing as an occupation because, in their opinion, it is hard work with uncertain income and unhonored. They thus try to support their children’s education as long as they can. However, according to the size of family, it means approximately three children in each family, together with uncertainty income and lack of social security, children, especially from small scale fisheries family, have their education limited only to primary or secondary school. Some of the children who attended upper primary school must drop out prior to completion because of insufficient funds. For this reason, the opportunities for education are limited and the poverty cycle within the fishing communities unbroken. It can’t help the children involving in fisheries occupation follow their parents. It is the compasses tragedy for the small scale fishers.
Information in fisheries management and conservation is lacking among fishers, who put in long hours of fishing and are not readily available for training and outreach.80 Thai fishers, especially small NSO, Thailand. Report of the 1996 Household Socio-Economic Survey. Bangkok. 1998. 47-48 pp.
S. Panjarat, Sumontha, M., Loychuen, K., Pantakit, V. and Singtongyam, W. 2005. Fishermen’s Attitude on Management of Blue Swimming Crab Resources in The Andaman Sea.. Technical Paper no. 14/2007. Marine Fisheries Research and Development Bureau, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 33-33 pp.
NSO, Thailand. The 2000 Population and Housing Census- Education. (2000[cited 31 April 2007]); available from http://web.nso.go.th/eng/indicators/educat_e.htm.
S. Panjarat, et. al. 2005. Fishermen’s Attitude on Conservation Measure of Phang-Nga Bay during Spawning Season. op. cit. 52 p.
C. The Structure of Fisheries in the Andaman Sea Coast
1. The Nature of Fisheries The fisheries in Thailand are an open access resources that means the condition where access to the fishery (for the purpose of harvesting fish) is unrestricted: the right to catch fish is free, limitless and open to all.
In Thailand DOF is responsible for licensing fishing gear while the Department of Harbours registers the vessels and operators. The DOF licenses only main fishing gears that have a significant impact on the fishery, such as: trawls, purse seines, gillnets, trammel nets while many other fisheries remain unlicensed and virtually unrecorded.
As shown in Table 12, the most varied kind and highest number (821) of registered fishing gear were in Satun Province. In Ranong, there were 256 registered fishing gears, the most common is the otter board trawl (81) followed by Spanish mackerel gill nets (69).
In Phang-Nga, there were 330 registered fishing gears, the most common is the Squid trammel net (77) followed by Squid falling net (63). In Phuket, there were 283 registered fishing gears, the most common is the pair trawl (136) followed by otter board trawl (52). In Krabi, there were 127 registered fishing gears and the most common is the Squid falling net (45) followed by Surrounding net (33). And in Trang, there were 393 registered fishing gears, the most common is Otter board trawl (303) followed by Surrounding net (53).
J. Pimoljinda. Coastal fisheries management in Phang-Nga Bay. Proceeding of the Regional Workshop on Coastal Fisheries Management Based on Southeast Asian Experiences, 19-22 November 1996, Chaing Mai, Thailand. 1997. 4 p.
S. Chullasorn. op. cit. 72-84 pp.
Source: DOF, Excerpt of the 2000 intercensal survey of marine fisheries, Number of fishing boat registered by size total gross tonnage and by Province. Thai Fishing Vessel Statistics, Fishery Information Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Technical paper No. 1/2006. 112 p.
The size boats with fishing gear licensed by the DOF ranges from less than 14 meters to more than 25 meters in length. The boats can be categorized into non power boats, outboard power boats and inboard powered boats. Only inboard power boats are registered by the Department of Harbours, thus only 1,744 boats of a total of 2,254 boats with licensed fishing gear are registered. The highest number of non-power boats is in Trang and lowest in Phuket. Krabi has the highest number of out board
- 34 powerboats but the lowest number of inboard power boats while the highest number of inboard power boat is in Satun Province (Table 13).
However, the number of registered fishing gear and boat is not an actual number. The separately register boat and gear is the weak gap for the fishers to use the registered boat to fish with illegal fishing gear. Fishing gears like push netter83 has a severe impact on sea bed and thus is classed as illegal fishing gear. The license will be not extended after expiration. But, in fact some fishers stilled fish without license. It means the registration number is underestimated and does not reflect the exact fishing effort.
The fisheries in Thailand are an open access resource, as noted previously, fishers exploited grounds that are not only in Province in which their boat or gear is registered. Fishers have freedom to fish all along the coast of Thailand. Trawlers that dominate in Phuket do not operate only in Phuket but also in the adjacent areas or Provinces such as Phang-Nga or Krabi, and they land their catch in the closest fishing port. In general, fishing vessels from the Andaman Sea rarely fish in the Gulf of Thailand.
On the other hand, fishing vessels from the Gulf of Thailand often fish in the Andaman Sea, especially during the closed period in the Gulf. The movement of fishing boats induces more competition between fishers, particularly between the fisher from the Gulf of Thailand and the local fishers, as well as higher fishing efforts to exploit fisheries resources in the limited areas resulting in a decrease in CPUE.
Furthermore, statistical data collection and stock assessments are complex and difficult to obtain due to the movement of boats. Marine fisheries resources management has never been effective without exact data on fishing effort or based on in-sufficient statistical data.
DOF freeze the number of fishing vessels by cooperating with the Department of Ports and Harbors to stop registration of new fishing boats. But as described above, the registered boats may be use to fish with illegal fishing gear. So, both the fishing boat and gear should be controlled together. In addition, freezing number of boats is not a sufficient measure because the present number of fishing boats is excessive and consistently overexploiting the resource. DOF also should decrease the number of fishing boats until the optimum capacity of fishing effort is reached for a sustainable population of fish.
Push netter is the fishing gear that consists of a net and two poles to keep the net open. The net is pushed by an engine-driven boat which can be any size between long-tail boats and larger.
DOF, Excerpt of the 2000 intercensal survey of marine fisheries, Number of fishing boat registered by size total gross tonnage and by Province. Thai Fishing Vessel Statistics, 80-80 pp. Fishery Information Technology Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Technical paper No. 1/2006. 112 p.
Ibid. 83-83 pp.
Ibid. 85-85 pp.
(a) Commercial fisheries Commercial fishery refers to fishing activity using inboard power boats of over 10 gross tons. Commercial fishing utilizes highly efficient fishing gear and has the capacity to fish offshore and spend one or several days offshore during each fishing trip. It utilizes fishing ports and usually uses ice or freezers to preserve catches. There are various kinds of commercial fishing gear registered with the DOF as shown in Table 12. The common fishing gears are medium to large size trawls, purse seines, encircling gillnets and large driftnets. Among them, trawls and purse seines play an important role in fishing. Fishing techniques are developed and adapted including the use of light luring techniques, Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) and modern gear equipped with sonar and echo sounders.