FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 21 |

«SE 062 649 ED 431 621 Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kwanaka, Takako; AUTHOR Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


SE 062 649

ED 431 621

Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kwanaka, Takako;


Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings


from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade

Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United

States. A Research and Development Report.

National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington,



REPORT NO NCES-1999-074 PUB DATE 1999-02-00 180p.; "With the assistance of Eric Derghazarian, Gundala NOTE Huber, Fumiko Ichiocka, and Nicole Kersting."

Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/timss


Reports Research (143)


MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.

EDRS.PRICE *Comparative Education; *Cross Cultural Studies; Foreign


Countries; Grade 8; Junior High Schools; *Mathematics Instruction; Teaching Methods IDENTIFIERS Germany; Japan; *Third International Mathematics and Science Study; United States


This report presents the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video study of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the Uhited States. This exploratory research project is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study included 231 eighth-grade mathematics classrooms and three samples were selected. Findings reveal a number of differences in instructional practices across the three cultures. This report provides a detailed account of the methods used in the study as well as a preliminary look at the findings up to this point. Contains 21 references. (ASK) ******************************************************************************** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the original document.



Research and Development Report February 1999 The TIMSS Videotape

Classroom Study:

Methods and Findings from an Exploratory


Office of Educational Research and Improvement


CENTER (ERIC) document has been reproduced as received from the person or organization originating it.

–  –  –

Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States

–  –  –

National Center for Education Statistics The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in the United States; conduct and publish reports and specialized analyses of the meaning and significance of such statistics; assist state and local education agencies in improving their statistical systems; and review and report on education activities in foreign countries.

NCES activities are designed to address high priority education data needs; provide consistent, reliable, complete, and accurate indicators of education status and trends; and report timely, useful, and high quality data to the U.S.

Department of Education, the Congress, the states, other education policymakers, practitioners, data users, and the general public.

We strive to make our products available in a variety of formats and in language that is appropriate to a variety of audiences. You, as our customer, are the best judge of our success in communicating information effectively. If you have any comments or suggestions about this or any other NCES product or report, we would like to hear from you. Please direct

your comments to:

–  –  –


The Research and Development (R&D) series of the reports has been initiated:

1. To share studies and research that are developmental in nature. The results of such studies may be revised as the work continues and additional data become available.

2. To share results of studies that are, to some extent, on the "cutting-edge" of methodological developments. Emerging analytical approaches and new computer software development often permits new, and sometimes controversial, analysis to be done. By participating in "frontier research," we hope to contribute to the resolution of issues and improved analysis.

3. To participate in discussions of emerging issues of interest to educational researchers, statisticians, and the Federal statistical community in general. Such reports may document workshops and symposiums sponsored by NCES that address methodological and analytical issues or may share and discuss issues regarding NCES practice, procedures, and standards.

–  –  –


E ecuti Summar This report presents the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video survey of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. This exploratory research project is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). It is the first to collect videotaped records of classroom instructionin any subjectfrom national probability samples.

OBJECTIVES The Videotape Classroom Study had four goals:

Provide a rich source of information regarding what goes on inside eighth-grade mathematics classes in the three countries.

Develop objective observational measures of classroom instruction to serve as valid quantitative indicators, at a national level, of teaching practices in the three countries.

Compare actual mathematics teaching methods in the United States and the other countries with those recommended in current reform documen6 and with teachers' perceptions of those recommendations.

Assess the feasibility of applying videotape methodology in future wider-scale national and international surveys of classroom instructional practices.


The study sample included 231 eighth-grade mathematics classrooms: 100 in Germany, 50 in Japan, and 81 in the United States. The three samples were selected from among the schools and classrooms participating in the 1994-95 TIMSS assessments. They were designed as a nationally representative sample of eighth-grade students in the three countries, although, as will be explained later, some minor deviations arose.

One lesson was videotaped in each classroom at some point during the school year. The specific date for videotaping was determined in consultation with the school and the teacher in order to minimize conflicts with special events such as field trips or school holidays, and to minimize the videographers' travel expenses. Tapes were encoded and stored digitally on CD-ROM and were accessed and analyzed using multimedia database software developed especially for this project. All lessons were transcribed and then analyzed on a number of dimensions by teams of coders who were native speakers of the three languages. Analyses presented here are based on weighted data. The analyses focused on the content and organization of the lessons, as well as on the instructional practices used by teachers during the lessons.


The video data are vast and will continue to provide rich analysis opportunities for researchers. The findings reported here, while preliminary, reveal a number of differences in instructional practices across the three cultures. These differences fall into four broad categories: (1) How lessons are structured and delivered; (2) What kind of mathematics is presented in the lesson; (3) What kind of mathematical thinking students are engaged in during the lesson; and (4) How teachers view reform.

How Lessons are Structured and Delivered To understand how lessons are structured it is important first to know what teachers intend students to learn from the lessons. Information gathered from teachers in the video study indicate an important cross-cultural difference in lesson goals. Solving problems is the end goal for the U.S. and German teachers: How well students solve problems is the metric by which success is judged. In Japan, problem solving is assumed to play a different role. Understanding mathematics is the overarching goal;

problem solving is merely the context in which understanding can best grow.

Following this difference in goals, we can begin to identify cultural differences in the scripts teachers in each country use to generate their lessons. These different scripts are probably based on different assumptions about the role of problem solving in the lesson, about the way students learn from instruction, and about what the proper role of the teacher should be.

Although the analyses are preliminary, there appears to be a clear distinction between the U.S. and German scripts, on one hand, and the Japanese script, on the other. U.S. and German lessons tend to have two phases: an initial acquisition phase and a subsequent application phase. In the acquisition phase, the teacher demonstrates and/or explains how to solve an example problem. The explanation might be purely procedural (as most often happens in the United States) or may include development of concepts (more often the case in Germany). Yet still, the goal in both countries is to teach students a method for solving the example problem(s). In the application phase, students practice solving examples on their own while the teacher helps individual students who are experiencing difficulty.

Japanese lessons appear to follow a different script. Whereas in German and U.S. lessons instruction comes first, followed by application, in Japanese lessons the order of activity is generally reversed. Problem solving comes first, followed by a time in which students reflect on the problem, share the solution methods they have generated, and jointly work to develop explicit understandings of the underlying mathematical concepts. Whereas students in the U.S. and German classrooms must follow the teacher as he

or she leads them through the solution of example problems, the Japanese student has a different job:

to invent his or her own solutions, then reflect on those solutions in an attempt to increase understanding.

In addition to these differences in goals and scripts, we also find differences in the coherence of lessons in the three countries. The greatest differences are between U.S. lessons and Japanese lessons. U.S.

lessons are less coherent than Japanese lessons if coherence is defined by several criteria: U.S. lessons are more frequently interrupted, both from outside the classroom and within; U.S. lessons contain more topicswithin the same lessonthan Japanese lessons; Japanese teachers are more likely to provide explicit links or connections between different parts of the same lesson.

What Kind of Mathematics is Presented Looking beyond the flow of the lessons, we also find cross-cultural differences in the kind of mathematical content that is presented in the lessons. When viewed in comparison to the content of lessons in the 41 TIMSS countries, the average eighth-grade U.S. lesson in the video sample deals with mathematics at the seventh-grade level by international standards, whereas in Japan the average level is ninthgrade. The content of German lessons averages at the eighth-grade level.

vi The quality of the content also differs across countries. For example, most mathematics lessons include some mixture of concepts and applications of those concepts to solving problems. How concepts are presented, however, varies a great deal across countries. Concepts might simply be stated, as in "the Pythagorean theorem states that a2 + 132 = c2," or they might be developed and derived over the course of the lesson. More than three-fourths of German and Japanese teachers develop concepts when they include them in their lessons, compared with about one-fifth of U.S. teachers. None of the U.S. lessons include proofs, whereas 10 percent of German lessons and 53 percent of Japanese lessons include proofs.

Finally, as part of the video study, an independent group of U.S. colege mathematics teachers evaluated the quality of mathematical content in a sample of the video lessons. They based their judgments on a detailed written description of the content that was altered for each lesson to disguise the country of origin (deleting, for example, references to currency). They completed a number of in-depth analyses, the simplest of which involved making global judgments of the quality of each lesson's content on a three-point scale (Low, Medium, High). (Quality was judged according to several criteria, including the coherence of the mathematical concepts across different parts of the lesson, and the degree to which deductive reasoning was included.) Whereas 39 percent of the Japanese lessons and 28 percent of the German ones received the highest rating, none of the U.S. lessons received the highest rating. Eightynine percent of U.S. lessons received the lowest rating, compared with 11 percent of Japanese lessons.

The Kind of Mathematical Thinking in Which Students are Engaged When we examine the kind of work students engage in during the lesson we find a strong resemblance between Germany and the United States, with Japan looking distinctly different. Three types of work were coded in the video study: Practicing Routine Procedures, Applying Concepts to Novel Situations, and Inventing New Solution Methods/Thinking. Ninety-six percent of student working time in Germany and 90 percent in the United States is spent in practicing routine procedures, compared with 41 percent in Japan. Japanese students spend 44 percent of their time inventing new solutions that require conceptual thinking about mathematics.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 21 |

Similar works:

«Euklid und die Elemente © Die Entdeckung der axiomatischen Methode durch Euklid Norbert Froese Stand: 30.08.2015 © Dieser Text unterliegt der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (siehe: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/legalcode). Der Text ist unter http://www.antike-griechische.de/Euklid.odt im odt Format verfügbar, die Abbildungen können über http://www.antike-griechische.de/Euklid_Abbildungen.zip herunter geladen werden. Zu den Copyright Regelungen für...»

«Chemische Technologie Org. Stoffe IV Erdöl, Erdgas, Biomasse und Produkte Erdöl,Erdgas, Biomasse und Produkte aus diesen Ressourcen (2.Teil) 5 Produkte aus Rohöl 5.1 Zwischenströme („Halbfabrikate“) Bei dem physikalischen Trennprozess in der atmosphärischen Destillationsanlage und in der Vakuumdestillation bleibt die Struktur der Verbindungen erhalten. Auch die Substanzen mit den Fremdelementen Schwefel, Stickstoff und Sauerstoff werden nicht verändert noch entfernt. Die bei der...»

«A Pest Management Survey Of North Carolina Public Schools By Steve Lilley Extension Sociologist Department of Sociology North Carolina State University Table of Contents Introduction 4 IPM Usage 5 Pest control decision making 6 Who Does Pest Control? 7 Common pests 9 How are pesticides applied? 9 Record-keeping and scheduling 10 Summary 12 References 13 A Pest Management survey of North Carolina Schools 2 Figures Figure 1: Percentages of pest control measures 6 Figure 2: Decision regarding pest...»

«SAS Global Forum 2007 Hands-on Workshops Paper 112-2007 An Introduction to SAS/GRAPH® Step-by-Step Deb Cassidy ABSTRACT SAS/GRAPH® is an extremely powerful tool. In addition to producing common graphs like pie charts and line graphs, it has the power to create any custom graph that you could imagine. Another great benefit to SAS/GRAPH is its ability to programmatically create your graphs without adjustments. You may have a few daily or monthly graphs to create, hundreds or thousands of graphs...»

«# Vitus N. UKOJI http://www.ifra-nigeria.org/IMG/pdf/fatal-road-accidents-nigeria.pdf Trends and patterns of fatal road accidents in Nigeria (2006-2014) IFRA-Nigeria working papers series, n°35 28/11/2014 ∗ Vitus Nwankwo UKOJI Trends and patterns of fatal road accidents in Nigeria (2006 – 2014) Executive summary The incidence of fatal road accidents in Nigeria is phenomenal. Trend analysis of fatal road accidents between June 2006 and May 2014 using Nigeria Watch database shows that 15,090...»

«Use of Sexual Appeals in Marketing Cosmetic Surgery  1 The Use of Sexual Appeals in Marketing Cosmetic Surgery Amelia J. Inman Valdosta State University Use of Sexual Appeals in Marketing Cosmetic Surgery  2 Abstract This research paper will utilize the teleological perspective to understand the effects that sexual appeal marketing plays in promoting cosmetic surgery. Many consumers of cosmetic surgery, especially women, desire to look and feel better about themselves by...»

«Dynamische Systeme in der Kognitionswissenschaft Herbert Jaeger GMD, St. Augustin email: herbert.jaeger@gmd.de August 1995 Zusammenfassung: Diese Arbeit bietet erstens einen Überblick über bestehende Systemtheorien und einige wichtige systemtheoretische Konstrukte. Zweitens will sie ein Gefühl dafür vermitteln, welche Erklärungspotentiale systemtheoretische Modellbildungen für die Kognitionswissenschaft haben. Dazu wird der Stand der Kunst bei der systemtheoretischen Modellierung...»

«E R SIT IV UN A S SA IS R S A VIE N A Temporal Logic Approach to Information-flow Control Thesis for obtaining the title of Doctor of Natural Science of the Faculty of Natural Science and Technology I of Saarland University by Markus N. Rabe Saarbrücken February, 2016 Dean of the Faculty Prof. Dr. Markus Bläser Day of Colloquium January 28, 2016 Chair of the Committee Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Reinhard Wilhelm Reviewers Prof. Bernd Finkbeiner, Ph.D. Prof. David Basin, Ph.D. Prof. Sanjit A. Seshia,...»

«      Timetric http://www.marketresearch.com/Timetric-v3917/ Publisher Sample Phone: 800.298.5699 (US) or +1.240.747.3093 or +1.240.747.3093 (Int'l) Hours: Monday Thursday: 5:30am 6:30pm EST Fridays: 5:30am 5:30pm EST Email: customerservice@marketresearch.com MarketResearch.com Source: Shutterstock Cards and Payments Industry in India: Emerging Trends and Opportunities to 2019 Published Date: April 2015 Summary Timetric’s “Cards and Payments Industry in India: Emerging Trends and...»

«Award Number G12AC20211 Detailed Surficial Geologic Mapping for the Weldon Spring, Chesterfield, Manchester, House Springs and Maxville 7.5-minute quadrangles as a Portion of the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazard Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) Collaborative Research with: United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program Office and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey Vicki Voigt Missouri Department of Natural Resources Division of Geology and Land...»


«PolySigns.nb file:///Volumes/KAE-TEXTE/KAE-TEXTS/Short%20Studies/Pub. Polycontexturality of Signs? Are there signs anyway? Rudolf Kaehr Dr.@ ThinkArt Lab Glasgow Abstract How to read polycontextural sign matrices? Are there such constructs like polycontextural signs? It is argued that there are in fact no entities or processes in the “real-world” like signs in the sense of semiotics at all. Semiotic signs are logocentric constructs realized by semioticians and defined by identity...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.