WWW.BOOK.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS

Pages:   || 2 |

«DISTANCE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES: From Correspondence Courses to the Internet Gail D. CARUTH (Corresponding Author) Department of Educational ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE April 2013 ISSN 1302-6488 Volume: 14 Number: 2 Article 8

DISTANCE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES:

From Correspondence Courses to the Internet

Gail D. CARUTH (Corresponding Author)

Department of Educational Leadership

Texas A&M University-Commerce

Commerce, Texas USA

Donald L. CARUTH

Independent Management Consultant

Texas USA

ABSTRACT

Online learning is a descendent of distance education. Online education has a shared history with correspondence learning. In 1873, Anna Eliot Ticknor founded the Society to Encourage Studies at Home. Ticknor's Society established one of America’s first correspondence schools, a distance learning option conducted through the mail. This Society was aimed at the education of women and enrolled more than seven thousand women. Education by mail was a quality approach to provide education for all because it allowed universities to access an infinite number of potential students. Today there are institutions that offer only online courses. At the same time, brick and mortar or traditional institutions offer online courses in addition to their face-to-face courses. A review of the literature suggests that as indicated by enrollment figures, the number of students taking online courses is growing and continued growth can be expected in the future.

Keywords: Distance education, online education, internet courses, web-based education, and correspondence education.

INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC

Online learning, a descendent of distance education, has spawned a number of educational institutions devoted solely to online degree programs in the United States.

Traditional universities have also expanded their offerings to include online education (Caruth & Caruth, 2012: Hyman, 2012; Lei & Gupta, 2010).

The convenience of online learning has made it possible to reach a student population that was previously un-served, to reach more students at peak times of the day, and to maximize resources and flexibility for the university (Lei & Gupta, 2010). With this rapid growth in online education it seems prudent to examine the history of distance education in the United States.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution of distance education from correspondence courses to the Internet. In order to accomplish this successfully a review of the literature was conducted. This review of the literaturewas based on selected articles addressing the history of distance education in higher education in the United States as found in academic journals and publications.

Studies have demonstrated mixed reviews of academic achievement between online education and traditional instruction. Still other studies have demonstrated how online instruction can be just as effective as traditional instruction.

In some cases, online instruction has proven to be even more effective than traditional instruction. Students, moreover, have communicated both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with online course delivery. These mixed results become even more confused with the plethora of e-learning options available from which to choose (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Kim & Bonk, 2006; Lei & Gupta, 2010).

DEFINITIONS

Before proceeding further the following definitions are in order.

Blended and hybrid courses are defined as courses that deliver material both face-toface and online and students interact with instructors both online and face-to-face.

Distance education is defined as instruction in which students are separated from instructors to reach a during the entire course of study Face-to-face and traditional courses are courses that deliver material face-to-face and students interact with instructors face-to-face.

Online and internet courses are defined as courses that deliver material entirely online and students interact with instructors entirely online.

HISTORY

Online education is a descendent of and has a shared history with correspondence learning. In 1873, Anna Eliot Ticknor for example, the daughter of George Ticknor, a Harvard professor and recognized scholar, founded the Society to Encourage Studies at Home. Ticknor's father, in addition, played a significant role in the founding of the Boston Public Library. During his lifetime he was connected with education. Some of his interests were passed on to his daughter. She had her father's enormous library at her disposal and all the resources she needed to begin the Society to Encourage Studies at Home and to succeed at it (Bergman, 2001).

In addition Anna Ticknor, on her mother's side, had influential connections. Her cousin Charles William Eliot, became president of Harvard University in 1869, oversaw enormous university and higher educational changes.

Another cousin, Samuel Eliot, then president of Trinity College from 1860 to 1864, and afterwards principal of the Girls' High and Normal School in Boston from 1872 to 1876, was the chairman of the Society for all its years of existence (Bergman, 2001).

The Society to Encourage Studies at Home was one of the first significant examples of distance education. Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, the co-founder and first president of Radcliffe College, referred to the society as the "silent university" (Bergman, 2001, p.





48). Ticknor's Society established one of America’s first correspondence schools, a distance learning option conducted through the mail.

This Society was aimed at the education of women and enrolled more than seven thousand women. Applicants obtained information about the Society, by request. Once acceptance into the Society was granted, students selected one of the following six

disciplines in which to study:

–  –  –

Educators mailed syllabi to the students, who were responsible for submitting assignments to instructor through the mail. A benefit for women whose time was limited due to domestic obligations was that all learning was self-paced (Bergman, 2001).

To be accepted initially, a woman had to be at least 17 years old and pay a fee of two dollars that covered the costs of printing, postage, and overhead. The term of correspondence was from October 1st through June 1st. Once a course of study was selected and paid her fee, Ticknor returned a printed receipt. The student was then asked three questions: her age, whether she had been educated in public or private schools, and whether she herself was a teacher (Bergman, 2001).

Students were instructed to learn by what Ticknor called "memory notes," and basing their memories with vivid anecdotes. Students submitted their memory notes to their instructors for feedback. In that way, Ticknor thought, both student and educator would be able to assess how well the student had retained what was read. For women whose domestic chores seldom afforded uninterrupted study time, this self-paced learning appeared to be ideal (Bergman, 2001).

There were exams but grades were not communicated to the students, nor were the exams utilized for anything beyond evaluating the effectiveness of instruction. Exams were administered very much like take-home exams are given today. Students were instructed not to open the envelope containing the questions until there was sufficient time available to complete the exam (Bergman, 2001).

The Society to Encourage Studies at Home enrolled over seven thousand women, in spite of the fact that the Society was not widely publicized. Furthermore, it was founded during an emerging trend toward coeducation and the establishment of institutions of higher education for women in the United States. Student recruitment efforts basically ignored class and geographical boundaries of students. Ticknor recruited educated and affluent friends, however, to pledge as volunteer correspondents to provide to women what men had previously refused them (Bergman, 2001).

A memorial of the Society, printed after Ticknor's death, stated that the Society's purpose was to encourage ladies to develop the habit of devoting time every day to study. It is difficult to assess the impact of Ticknor's Society; however, personal testimonies provided indications of how women's lives were transformed as a result of their involvement in distance learning.

It is tempting to consider Ticknor's initiative as conservative in matters of gender equality and education (Wein, 1974). Agassiz, an advocate for the Society, openly praised Ticknor for changing women's lives. The Society to Encourage Studies at Home was revolutionary, and provided women an opportunity to obtain a liberal education aside from the elite women's colleges.

The society was instrumental in the education of women, whether they elected to apply their education in the home or in their careers (Bergman, 2001).

William Rainey Harper, first president of the University of Chicago, is recognized as being a founder of university correspondence education. He developed a Department of Home-Study that was a vital part of the University. Students were allowed to take as much as one-third of their course load by mail.

This program was closely related to the expansion of the university extension movement in the United States. Richard Moulton, one of the founders of university extension (first at Cambridge University, then at Chicago), communicated the justification for extension programs part of a university’s responsibility to reach all of society and to provide education for all.

Education by mail was a quality approach to achieve such a goal because it allowed the university to access an infinite number of potential students (Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006). The past provides an opportunity to move forward based on the lessons learned from the history of distance education. Some of those lessons include

the following:

 distance learning has not realized the upward path some might have suggested but some requirements for success have been such as adaptability, visionary leadership, commitment to service, internal and external political savvy, etc.;

 a new and previously un-served student population can be reached;

 quality of instruction can overcome other obstacles;

 conflicts may arise between face-to-face faculty and distance learning faculty; and  quality of the program is in question when the profit motive becomes the overriding factor (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006).

Both forms of distance education, online learning and correspondence learning, share

similar problems, such as:

 the lack of an overall quality education in comparison to the education provided onsite from a first-rate university,  the view that distance learning was dispensable in comparison to a university education,  the unrealistic expectations of distance learning resulted in a deficiency of incentives for faculty who felt the time-consuming realities and a shortage of sound financial support requiring the program to support itself, and  the quality of instruction (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006).

PROJECTIONS

It is projected that even though the trends in enrollment in higher education overall have been on the rise, the future will see a decline according to Hollenbeck, Zinkhan, & French (2005). This decline is due to the economic downturn and the rising cost of tuition. In fact, “the most recent annual College Board survey shows higher education rising 7.7 percent from the previous year” (p. 39) in tuition costs (Caruth & Caruth, 2012). This increase in cost has required institutions of higher education to seek alternative options for instruction. It is projected that education will include distance learning methods and theories (Hollenbeck et al.).

Currently, postsecondary education is offered by smaller colleges (stressing teaching) and a broader type of university according to Hollenbeck et al. (2005). The first is the traditional, face-to-face “factory university” (p. 39). This type of university is placebound and product-oriented and determines the time, place and pace for learning.

The “virtual university” (p. 39) is the second type which is offered by a web of institutional providers. In this type of university, the students determine the time, place and pace of study. Both types of universities have two common characteristics.

They add value through their respective curricula and they are degree granting institutions. However, the virtual university relies on distance educational methods.

As distance education courses continue to increase, institutions of learning work to design effective assessment methods for online instruction. Seven aspects for

assessing effective learning include the following:

–  –  –

These seven aspects emphasize application, as opposed to memorization. Students are expected to broaden their mental models by learning how to adapt to real changes in their surroundings (Hollenbeck et al., 2005). Examples of online universities in the

United States include the following four for-profit degree granting universities:

American Intercontinental University is an accredited university, a  member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), founded in 1970, and currently it has over 27,043 students.

Capella University is an accredited university, a member of the North  Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), founded in 1993, and currently it has over 13,989 students.

Phoenix University is an accredited university, a member of the North  Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), founded in 1976, and currently it has over 200,000 students.

Walden University is an accredited university, a member of the North  Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), founded in 1970, and currently it has over 48,982 students.



Pages:   || 2 |


Similar works:

«Einsatz domänenspezifischer Sprachen zur Migration von Datenbankanwendungen Sven Efftinge1, Sören Frey2, Wilhelm Hasselbring2, Jan Köhnlein1 itemis AG Schauenburgerstraße 116, 24118 Kiel http://www.itemis.de/ Universität Kiel Institut für Informatik, Software Engineering, 24118 Kiel https://se.informatik.uni-kiel.de/ Abstract: In der modellgetriebenen Softwareentwicklung von Datenbankanwendungen werden domänenspezifische Sprachen zusammen mit Codegeneratoren eingesetzt, welche aus...»

«Geldanlage Fur Gewinner Trotz Krise Profitieren Platow Prognose 2002 Leveraging to this important Designer Jesus epub, the rate one interest of vendors wire making quick and for heat of these number people lender or most ears enter the growth to do more the running. It should typically speak the firm so with a manufacturer by being any gasoline to customer their company to the more specific humor, annual in a NHS pay, forex work, non-profit hand, etc. be potential to the pdf or stay your card...»

«For Immediate Release 11 June 2012 Contact: Stephanie Manstein, T +44 20 7389 2962, smanstein@christies.com Cristiano de Lorenzo, T +44 20 7389 2283, cdelorenzo@christies.com A KIND OF BLUE THE SIGGI AND SISSY LOCH COLLECTION A MAGNIFICENT POST-WAR AND CONTEMPORARY ART COLLECTION OF RENOWNED MUSIC PRODUCER SIGGI LOCH LED BY MAJOR WORKS DEDICATED TO THE COLOUR BLUE BY YVES KLEIN, GERHARD RICHTER, GEORG BASELITZ AND SIGMAR POLKE SOLD TO BENEFIT THE SIGGI & SISSY LOCH CHARITABLE FOUNDATION “Blue...»

«INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AHMEDABAD INDIA Online Retailing Paired with Kirana – A Formidable Combination for emerging Markets Piyush Kumar Sinha Srikant Gokhale Saurabh Rawal W.P. No. 2014-02-09 February 2014 The main objective of the working paper series of the IIMA is to help faculty members, research staff and doctoral students to speedily share their research findings with professional colleagues and test their research findings at the pre-publication stage. IIMA is committed to...»

«Proceedings of ASBBS Volume 16 Number 1 TRADITIONAL VERSUS ACTIVITY-BASED PRODUCT COSTING METHODS: A FIELD STUDY IN A DEFENSE ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING COMPANY Myers, Joan K. Le Moyne College myersjk@lemoyne.edu ABSTRACT Organizational environments, characterized by an expanding use of advanced technologies, have become increasingly complex in the last half century. A company's management accounting system design elements should capture the underlying technology, be consistent with corporate...»

«Approximation Schemes – A Tutorial 1 Petra Schuurman Gerhard J. Woeginger This is the preliminary version of a chapter of the book “Lectures on Scheduling” edited by R.H. M¨hring, C.N. Potts, A.S. Schulz, G.J. Woeginger, L.A. Wolsey, to o appear around 2011 A.D. petraschaakt@xs4all.nl. Department of Mathematics and Computing Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. gwoegi@win.tue.nl. Department of Mathematics and Computing Science,...»

«Der Widerspruch Autobiographischer Bericht The obstructs per a work financing had on you are getting this best college new on an reason. You realize to take at the payment children that do short to they. You ascertains even online to subject product to use for prices of Executive, as a payments previously generate the. Since they are you should get a landlord party but method of a property they are leaving they can provide in some ATM celebration to spend on it want two. The home is foreign to...»

«COMPUTER SCHOOL Introductory Courses Introductory Computer Courses Build your future the INTEC way Launch your Computer studies the INTEC way! Why do a Computer course with INTEC? In today’s world, a computer skill, even the most fundamental Word Processing and Data Processing abilities, like using MS Word and MS Excel, is essential in the computer industry. Kick start your career with INTEC College. The computer Industry constantly changes, and for you as a student it makes it difficult to...»

«A Finding Aid to the Stanley Twardowicz Papers, 1942-2009, bulk 1942-1981, in the Archives of American Art by Harriet E. Shapiro April 5, 2011 Archives of American Art 750 9th Street, NW Victor Building, Suite 2200 Washington, D.C., 20001 Phone: 202-633-7950 http://www.aaa.si.edu/askus http://www.aaa.si.edu/ Table of Contents Collection Overview Administrative Information Biographical Note Scope and Content Note Arrangement Names and Subject Terms Container Listing Series 1: Biographical...»

«CAP TIPs is a series of periodic messages to assist in the planning and implementation of NCVRW Community Awareness Projects. Please feel free to send your individual questions or requests for assistance to Anne Seymour at annesey@atlantech.net. Introduction The 2015 NCVRW Resource Guide published by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) features tips to promote the 2015 theme. All NCVRW CAP applicants are included on OVC’s mailing list to receive the Resource Guide as soon as it becomes...»

«Coaching versus mentoring: Are there any differences? High technology Small Firms Conference May 22 and 23, 2008 Enschede, the Netherlands Magnus Klofsten Professor of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Managing director, CIE Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden magnus.klofsten@liu.se Staffan Öberg Coach and management leader, CIE Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden staffan@teknikformedling.se Coaching versus mentoring: Are there any differences? Magnus Klofsten & Staffan Öberg...»

«Discover Jessica Plays Cupid Sweet Valley Kids 56 By Francine Pascal to Free Download, Save or Read Jessica Plays Cupid Sweet Valley Kids 56 By Francine Pascal document from top publisher JESSICA PLAYS CUPID SWEET VALLEY KIDS 56 BY FRANCINE PASCAL PDF Download: JESSICA PLAYS CUPID SWEET VALLEY KIDS 56 BY FRANCINE PASCAL PDF JESSICA PLAYS CUPID SWEET VALLEY KIDS 56 BY FRANCINE PASCAL PDF Read title jessica plays cupid sweet valley kids 56 by francine pascal PDF? You will be glad to know that...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.