FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis

Pages:     | 1 ||

«DISTANCE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES: From Correspondence Courses to the Internet Gail D. CARUTH (Corresponding Author) Department of Educational ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

Studies have resulted in mixed predictions regarding online education. In one study on motivation for resident students taking online courses, it was predicted that enrollment in online courses might decrease because of students being overwhelmed with technology and constant online exposure. Students are in front of the computer too much already and even though they are becoming more comfortable with technology they are at risk of becoming de-motivated (Pastore & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

However, according to Kim & Bonk (2006) it is predicted that there will be a growth of about 10-20% in online certification and recertification programs in the future.

There will also be a rise in associate degrees offered online. Further projections made by the researchers indicated that the overall quality of online education will improve (Caruth & Caruth, 2012).


Distance learning, since its early days, has changed the playing field for formal education. The federal government, for example, has considered revising requirements that students wanting to qualify for federal assistance can take no more than 50% of their course load online and Harvard University has been considering reducing requirements for residency. Some universities are even requiring students to enroll in some online courses in pursuit of the "global scholar" (Caruth & Caruth, 2012;

Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006, p. 570). Additional changes in online education

are demonstrated by the following:

–  –  –

Hence, online education is becoming common practice in higher education. It is growing and becoming more established (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006). Tallent-Runnels, Thomas, Lan, Cooper, Ahern, Shaw, and Liu (2006) presented numbers to illustrate how enrollments in online education is increasing 33% in the United States each year.

According to the Sloan Consortium the growth rate in online education exceeds the overall growth rate in higher education. These figures reflected the total student population in higher education (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Allen & Seaman, 2010).

The evolution of online courses and teaching online requires that faculty think and feel differently about the classroom and the learning environment. This change in thinking does not need not to be viewed negatively.

There is some reluctance, on the part of faculty, to move from behind the lectern to the virtual classroom.

As the role of online instruction in higher education develops, instructors are assuming multiple responsibilities as teacher, learner, and technical support person. Faculty should not feel alone in this evolution. Administration must also get behind this in support of the faculty (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Fish & Wickersham, 2009).

At a minimum, faculty needs initial and ongoing training in technology to teach online courses effectively until they feel comfortable with online instruction. Training faculty can be costly whether universities invite online technology experts on campus or they send selected faculty to offsite training (Lei & Gupta, 2010).

According to the Sloan Consortium, there is no single approach to training but most universities provide mentoring and training options for faculty teaching online.

Specifically, 65% provide training courses and 59% provide informal mentoring options (Allen & Seaman, 2010).The size of online classes is a concern.

Class size is generally determined by individual universities. Over 20 states in the United States have policies limiting the number of students per class.

On the one hand, some universities advocate large size classes to encourage collaborative learning that produces the most positive learning outcomes. On the other hand, other universities maintain that the best instructor to student interaction is reached through smaller classes (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Orellana, 2006). Early approaches to distance learning did not require different thought processes toward teaching from previous lecture driven instruction. Online education is a new form of distance-learning that focuses on collaborative discussions between students and teachers. Those instructors teaching online, according to Mitchell (2009), felt that because of their online experiences they interacted more effectively with students in face-to-face classes than before. Additionally, teachers now view students as more autonomous and more self-driven (Caruth & Caruth, 2012).

Distance education, moreover, is thriving internationally, particularly in higher education and shows no signs of slowing down. The ease of learning via the internet has made it viable to reach students that were previously un-served.

In spite of the rising costs (Hyman, 2012) and challenges when studying outside of the classroom, students have more autonomy, flexibility, and resources to handle their coursework offered with distance education options than in the traditional environment. More educational programs are utilizing the Internet than ever before.

Technology has facilitated this approach to distance learning. The growth of web-based distance education has been unprecedented over the past decade and shows little or no signs of slowing down (Lei & Gupta, 2010).


Online education is becoming an integral part of the American educational system (Caruth & Caruth, 2012; Hyman, 2012; Lei & Gupta, 2010). Currently there are institutions that offer strictly online courses and brick and mortar or traditional institutions also offer online courses. Online education appears to be well established in the higher educational scene. There are mixed views concerning the future developments of online education. Not all research points to a definitive understanding of how online education will unfold in the future.

A review of the literature suggests that as indicated by enrollment figures, the number of students taking online courses is growing and continued growth can be expected in the future (Allen & Seaman, 2010; Kim & Bonk, 2006; Lei & Gupta, 2010). However it is measured, online education appears to be here to stay.


–  –  –

Gail D. CARUTH (Corresponding Author) Department of Educational Leadership Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, Texas USA Residence Address 1876 Oak Bend Drive, Rockwall, Texas 75087 Phone: 972-771-2371 Email: gaildianna@flash.net

–  –  –

Donald L. CARUTH, Ph.D.

Independent Management Consultant Residence Address 1876 Oak Bend Drive, Rockwall, Texas 75087 Phone: 972-771-2371 Email: dcaruth@flash.net


Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Learning on demand: Online education in the United States, 2009. Babson Survey Research Group, Retrieved October 11, 2010 from, http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/pdf/learningondemand.pdf

American Intercontenental University. (n.d.). Retreived on January 16, 2013 from:

http://www.aiuonline.edu/Degree-Short/Info-offer3?code=3862&SiteID=MSN+Branded_-_AIU+Branded_Exact+AIU_Online+Exact|mkwid|6bMPdxda|pcrid|1551558854|pkw|AIU%20Online|pmt|e Bergman, H. F. (2001). "The Silent University": The Society to Encourage Studies at Home, 1873-1897. The New England Quarterly, (74)3, 447-47

Capella University. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2013 from:

http://www.capella.edu/?linkid=174866&WT.srch=1&DFAID=1&cskwid=eGAi0FuAz&002=2173582&004= 888467543&005=11047138644&006=1450630624&009=e&011=capella+university&refr= Caruth, G. D. & Caruth, D. L. (2012). Significant trends in online education. Journal of Online Education.

Fish, W. W., & Wickersham, L. E. (2009). Best practices for online instructors:

Reminders. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 279-284.

Hollenbeck, C. R., Zinkhan, G. M., & French, W. (2005). Distance learning trends and benchmarks: Lessons from an online MBA program. Marketing Education Review, (15)2, 39-51.

Hyman, P. (2012) The year of the disruptive education: As college tuitions soar, various online models vie to educate college students worldwide—at no cost. Communications of the ACM: 55(12) doi:10.1145/2380656.2380664 Kim, K. J., & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: The survey says.... Educause Quarterly, 4, 22-30.

Larreamendy-Joerns, J., & Leinhardt, G. (2006). Going the distance with online education. Review of Educational Research 76(4), 567-605. Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/76/4/567 Lei, S. A., & Gupta, R. K. (2010). College distance education courses: Evaluating benefits and costs from institutional, faculty and students' perspective. Distance Education, 616-631.

Mitchell, R. L. G. (2009). Online education and organizational change. Community College Review, 37(1), 81-101.

Orellana, A. (2006). Class size and interaction in online courses. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 7(3), 229-248.

Pastore, R., & Carr-Chellman, A. (2009). Motivations for residential students to participate in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 10(3), 263-277.

Phoenix University. (n.d.) Retrieved January 16, 2013 from:

http://www.phoenix.edu/vr/aptm?v8=brand&unit=dir&channel=srch&provider=msn&initiative=gen&creat ive_desc=Exact&keyword=phoenix+university&user3=1&mktg_prog=brand&placement=srch&version=tex t&classification=t1srch&destination=aptm&distribution=na&user1=cpc&user2=brand&cm_mmc=dir-_srch-_-msn en&cm_mmca4=Exact&cm_mmca7=phoenix+university&cm_mmca13=1&cm_mmca1=brand&cm_mmca2= srch&cm_mmca5=text&cm_mmca6=t1srch&cm_mmca8=aptm&cm_mmca9=na&cm_mmca11=cpc&cm_m mca12=brand&pvp_campaign=14210_0917_9_95&pvp_campaign_int=24310_0917_9_95&vrefid=7X6Tj8J P_816006219_RefDomain_{placement}#rc1 Tallent-Runnels, M. K., Thomas, J. A., Lan, W. Y., Cooper, S., Ahern, T. C., Shaw, S. M., & Lui, X. (2006). Teaching courses online: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 6(1), 93-135. Retrieved September 22, 2010 from http://rer.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/76/1/93

Walden University. (n.d.) Retrieved on January 16, 2013 from:

http://info.waldenu.edu/onlineuniversities/?comm_code=MSNG0010&infinity=mac~Generic%20and%20D egree%20Programs%2BSPART%2BUS%2BENG~GENERIC%2BOnline%20Universities~1566548762~8939 739153~online%20universities~e&utm_source=bing&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=online%20universitie s&utm_content=m_1566548762_e&utm_campaign=Generic%20and%20Degree%20Programs%2BSPART %2BUS%2BENG&msclkid=abb75534277643ebb0086e5637464a1d

Pages:     | 1 ||

Similar works:

«TWO FISH In den letzten neun Jahren erarbeiteten TWO FISH bisher zwölf Stücke in wechselnden Konstellationen und internationalen Besetzungen von Tänzern und Schauspielern, Choreographien und Theaterstücke für Bühnen Wohnungen und andere Orte. Die Produktionen entstanden in Berlin zunächst mit dem Festival Tanztage und dann in Zusammenarbeit mit den Sophiensaelen, dem Hebbel am Ufer, der Tanzwerkstatt Berlin, der Tanzfabrik Berlin. Sie konnten in Frankreich, Belgien, den Niederlanden,...»

«. ~ SPENSER NEWSLETTER Number 3 Volume 12 Fall 1981 BOOKS: REVIEWS AND NOTICES ARTICLES: ABSTRACTS AND NOTICES SPENSER IN GERMANY DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS SPENSER BIBLOGRAPHY: UPDATE Co-editors: Foster Provost, Cherie Ann Haeger Corresponding Editors: Elizabeth Bieman, Werner Bies, James Neil Brown, Donald Cheney, Alice Fox, A. Kent Hieatt, Waldo F. McNeir, Richard D. Schell Sponsored by the Departments of English, Duquesne University and Gannon University CONTENTS TO OUR READERS 57 BOOKS:...»

«ADVANCE FOR RELEASE AT 1:00 P.M. MONDAY, APRIL 28, 1969 t BEFORE THE UNITED STATES CHAMBER OF COMMERCE WASHINGTON-HILTON HOTEL. WASHINGTON, D. C. It is with the greatest pleasure that I welcome the Chamber of Commerce of the United States to Washington. You represent 3700 affiliated organizations with a total membership of 33,000 firms, corporations and individuals. I suppose that you are probably more representative of our pluralistic society than any single organization I can think of. Your...»

«skull bilder fantasy skull bilder fantasy 80 Bilder gratis Entwickeln Sie 80 Bilder gratis. Entwickeln Sie 80 Bilder gratis. Vom europäischen Marktführer. GoldenTime Saunaclub | goldentime-saunaclub.de Der größte FKK Saunaclub in Brüggen am Niederrhein auf über 12.000 qm Bilder von Engeln Kunstdrucke in höchster Qualität! Kunstdrucke in höchster Qualität! Rahmenservice, Zahlung p. Rechnung. Gallerie 2 Fantasy Tattoo´s Fantasy Tattoos Fantasy Auf der Suche nach einer Idee für euer...»


«Quick Start Owner’s Manual (English) Manual de inicio rápido del usuario (Español) Guide d’utilisation simplifié (Français) Kurzbedienungsanleitung (Deutsch) Manuale rapido di utilizzazione (Italiano) BOX CONTENTS AVM02 • Owner's Manual • Power Cable • S-Video Cable • 3-Connector RCA Audio / Video Cable • CONTENIDO DE LA CAJA (Español) AVM02 • Manual del Usuario • Cable de alimentación • Cable de S-Video • Cable de audio/video RCA con 3 • conectores CONTENU DE LA...»

«Digital Books Nakamichi Soundspace 3 User Manual is free to download and read online. Get Nakamichi Soundspace 3 User Manual PDF file with no cost NAKAMICHI SOUNDSPACE 3 USER MANUAL PDF Basic journal, search type of help documentation is really a hard copy manual that's printed, nicely bound, and functional. Itoperates as a reference manual skim the TOC or index, get the page, and stick to the directions detail by detail. The challenge using these sorts of documents is the fact that user...»

«The Girlfriend S Guide To Hockey For you take finding to win out no estate, you will hide by regarding a secured digit may go the costs at laptop. Engaging to complete company savings, employees are on your best process around Area 2009, on the line by 69.2 investors with collection for this loss without ADR. In a property will lower grown in your pdf, the drop of the time manages downloaded of Act skills. I looked entirely check the card as you was through the able base and were once have a...»

«SHERWOOD ROAD ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT PRECINCT Paper Presented by: Chris Seam Author: Chris Seam, Project Officer, Kempsey Shire Council 4th Annual WIOA NSW Water Industry Engineers & Operators Conference St Stanislaus’ College, Bathurst 20 to 22 April, 2010 Page No. 18 4th Annual WIOA NSW Water Industry Engineers & Operators Conference St Stanislaus’ College, Bathurst 20 to 22 April, 2010 SHERWOOD ROAD ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT PRECINCT Chris Seam, Project Officer, Kempsey Shire Council...»

«CHAPTER 8 Redesigning With Personality Redesigning With Personality Written by Aarron Walter Reviewed by Denise Jacobs CHAPTER 08 Redesigning With Personality R edesigning a website can be the seven-layer taco dip of hell. You’ve searched for inspiration on dozens of websites, captured screenshots, jotted down notes, consulted friends and colleagues, maybe even interviewed users. But despite your due diligence, your vision for the new website remains unclear. I feel your pain, my friend. I...»

«THE LIAISON GROUP ON ROAD ACCIDENT STATISTICS MINUTES OF THE MEETING HELD ON WEDNESDAY 14th MAY 2003 in Conference Room 3, Victoria Quay 1.1 Attendees From the Police Forces and Councils which send the data to the Scottish Executive: Susan MacKenzie (Northern Police) Marion Howieson (Northern Police) Inspector Cliff Stewart (Grampian Police) Constable Iain MacLelland (Grampian Police) Chief Inspector Alexander Bowman (Tayside Police) Ms Margaret Wilson (Tayside Police) Mr Hugh Connell (Fife...»

«Management Accounting Research, 1997, 8, 459 480 Towards explaining activity-based costing failure: accounting and control in a decentralized organization Teemu MalmiU Many of the activity-based costing ŽABC. systems introduced in recent years are said to fail Že.g. Cooper et al., 1992; Argyris and Kaplan, 1994; Shields, 1995; Roberts and Silvester, 1996. The use of ABC for surveillance by the group management, with no consequent actions, leads us to propose that claims on ABC failure result,...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.