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«Volume 1 Page Abstract 02 Dedication 03 Acknowledgements 04 List of Illustrations 05 Introduction 15 CHAPTER I Part1 Some Problems of Defining Style ...»

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Volume 1 Page



Dedication 03

Acknowledgements 04

List of Illustrations 05

Introduction 15 CHAPTER I Part1 Some Problems of Defining Style 33 Part 2 A Case Study: Ezra, David and some Problems of Stylistic Analysis 55 CHAPTER II Style and Meaning in the Echternach Gospels 93 CHAPTER III Part 1 Quoting Rome in the Arts and Styles of Early medieval Northumbria 164 Part 2 Rome and the Art of Triumph 214 Conclusions 231 Definition of „Imago‟ Appendix 1 258 Definition of „Mos‟ Appendix 2 261 Abbreviations 263 Bibliography i Primary Latin Sources 265 ii Primary Theoretical Sources 269 iii Secondary Sources 272 Volume 2 Illustrations


This study contemplates the part played by style in the creation of Anglo-Saxon Northumbrian works of art produced in the seventh and eighth century. Considering style as a locus of meaning, it investigates how Anglo-Saxon art makers may have responded to the emergence of Continental styles brought to the region with the spread of Christianity.

By looking at some of the ways style has been treated within the scholarship of AngloSaxon art objects, and by thinking about some of the effects stylistic analysis has had on current understandings of style, an alternative view of style is proposed. Working from the standpoint that Anglo-Saxon creators of artistic products were fully aware of the ramifications their stylistic choices had in conferring meaning, this investigation seeks to reveal some of the potential signs and symbols embedded in Anglo-Saxon designs. Taking various analytical and theoretical approaches to the material, it aims to offer some new interpretations of some of Northumbria‟s most canonical artworks and suggests new insights in to the mindsetof Anglo-Saxon artists and viewers. Its overriding objective is try to understand more about style‟s role in the creation processes involved in formulating these works of art.

Dedicated to W.R. Green 1941-2012

–  –  –

Inspired by my ever-present companion, Bede, in his preface to his Ecclesiastical History, I would like to thank everyone who has supported me in this endeavour and state that „my principle authority and helper in this modest work‟ has been my academic supervisor, inspiration, and motivator, Dr Jane Hawkes. I thank her wholeheartedly for her continued help, support, guidance and friendship and for all the laughs we have shared along the way.

I also thank Dr Michael White for his valuable contribution to the formulation of my thesis and for his ongoing encouragement.

I would especially like to thank the Arts and Humanities Research Council for their support of both my Masters and Doctoral Thesis, without their contribution, this work would not have been possible.

My utmost gratitude goes to Professor Eámonn Ó Carragáin and all of the members of his UCC Rome Seminars who have taken time to talk to me through this process and who have been so inspirational as colleagues and friends. Particular thanks to Eámonn for all our chats about Bewcastle and Ruthwell, to Carol Farr for her beautiful insights into manuscripts, to Anna Gannon for her expertise in iconography, to Carol Neuman De Vegvar for her unbridled enthusiasm for all things Anglo-Saxon, to Richard Sharp for his help with Latin Epigraphy and to Geoffrey West for our long conversations about modes and manners of style and to Claire Stancliffe for all her advice and kindness and particularly to her late husband Ben de la Mare who made me believe this PhD was possible. I would also like to give special thanks to Jennifer O Reilly whose work has been of the most profound influence on my thinking and who has been a great supporter and friend throughout this process.

A special “thank-you” to all of the libraries, museums and historic sites that have helped me in my research. These include the British School in Rome, the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral, the staff of Bede‟s World and St Paul‟s Church at Jarrow, St Peter‟s Church at Wearmouth, and St Andrew‟s in Hexham. The staff of York‟s Minster library, the library of King‟s Manor, the J.B.M library and Borthwick Institute also have my grateful thanks as does Christopher De Hamel at Corpus Christi Library, Cambridge, and Michelle Brown who first showed me the Lindisfarne Gospels when I was an undergraduate.

Finally, I would like to express thanks to all of my friends and family whose loving support has helped me along the way. Especially, my husband, Colin who has accompanied me (often in the dead of winter) to the most remote Anglo-Saxon sites, to conferences, and libraries and has generally suffered interminable conversations about Bede when nobody else was around! Without his love, support at belief, this would not have been possible. Massive thanks too go to my parents who have been a constant source of love and encouragement. Finally, I‟d like to make special mention of the late Valerie Quiggley, my A Level Art teacher, who taught me „how to see‟ and who inspired me to do a degree in art history, Dr Caroline Conroy, who has shared my woes, wiped my tears and has kept me laughing, and my nieces Millie and Ami for putting up with my “Anglo-Saxon lectures”. To all, my heart-felt thanks.


1. Map of Northumbria, (own artwork)

2. View of Bambrugh Castle, (own photograph) St Peter‟s Church, Monkwearmouth, Sunderland, (own photograph) 3.

St Paul‟s Church, Jarrow, Northumbria, (own photograph) 4.

St Andrew‟s Abbey Church, Hexham, Northumbria, (own photograph) 5.

6. Ripon Cathedral, Ripon, North Yorkshire, (own photograph) St Cuthbert‟s Pectoral Cross, Durham Cathedral Treasury, c. 640-70, 6cm x 6cm, 7.

(York, Digital Library) St Cuthbert‟s Portable Altar, Durham Cathedral Treasury, seventh century, 8.

12.8cm x 12.2cm (Henderson, 1999)

9. Velamen of Harlindis and Relindis, Aldeneik Masham Column, St Mary‟s churchyard Masham, North Yorkshire, 9th Century, 10.

(York, Digital Library)

11. Cundall-Aldborough Cross Shaft, (Collingwood, 1927) Hovingham Panel, All Saint‟s Church, Yorkshire, late 8th, early 9th century (own 12.

photograph) Bewcastle Monument, St Cuthbert‟s churchyard, Cumbria, 8th Century, (own 13.

photograph) Ruthwell Cross, Dumfriesshire, 8th Century, (own photograph) 14.

15a-c (a) Salin Type I (Salin, 1904) (b) Salin Type II (Salin, 1904) (c) Salin Type III (Salin, 1904)

16. Sutton Hoo Treasures, c. 625, London, British Museum, (http://www.britishmuseum.org – accessed, 14/04/2012)

17. Hunterson Brooch, National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, c.700 (Hawkes & Mills, 1999)

18. Hunterson Brooch, detail, Edinburgh, National Museum of Scotland, c.700 (Hawkes & Mills, 1999) Codex Amiatinus, Ezra page, fol.5v, Florence, Laurentian Library, first quarter of 19.

eighth century (York University Digital Library) Durham Cassiodorus, David Rex, fol. 81v, Durham, Durham Cathedral Library 20.

second quarter of the eighth century (York University Digital Library) Codex Amiatinus, Colophon fol. 1v, Florence, Laurentian Library 21.

(Bruce-Mitford, 1967), (York University Digital Library)

22. Valenciennes Apocalypse, Valenciennes, Bibliotèque Municipale MS.99 (York University Digital Library) Codex Amiatinus, Father, Son, Holy Ghost Roundels, fols 7r, 6v & 6r, Florence, 23.

Laurentian Library, first quarter of 8th century, (Bruce-Mitford, 1967)

24. Codex Amiatinus Ezra, Florence, Laurentian Library; Durham Cassiodorus David Rex, Durham, Durham Cathedral Library (York University Digital Library)

25. Codex Amiatinus Ezra, detail, Florence, Laurentian Library, (York University Digital Library) Bookcase mosaic, Galla Placidia‟s Mausoleum, Ravenna, Italy, fifth century (own 26.


27. Sta Maria in Antiqua fresco, Roman Forum, Rome, Italy, seventh century (own photograph)

28. Melcisedek mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, sixth century, (own photograph)

29. Evangelist mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, sixth century, (own photograph)

30. Throne of Maximian, Archiepiscopal Museum, Ravenna, Italy, late fifth/early sixth century (own photograph)

31. Melcisedek detail, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, sixth century,(own photograph) 32. (a.) Square-headed brooch, Thornborough, North Yorkshire, sixth century (b.) Thornborough brooch detail ((York University Digital Library) 33. (a.) Benwell Brooch reverse, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Museum of Antiquities of the University and Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, sixth century (b.) Benwell Brooch front, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Museum of Antiquities of the University and Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, sixth century (York University Digital Library) Lindisfarne Gospels, cross-carpet page, fol.26v, British Library, London, c.700 34.

(York University Digital Library) Lindisfarne Gospels, „Liber Generationis‟, Matthew Incipit, fol.27r, British 35.

Museum, London c.700 (York University Digital Library) St Andrew ‟s Cross St Andrew‟s Church Bishop Auckland, Durham, c.800, 36.

CASSS1, (Tom Middlemass Photographer) Acca‟s Cross, St Andrew‟s, Hexham, Northumberland (own photograph) 37.

38. Biting Beasts, Bambrugh Beast, Bambrugh, Northumberland; Franks Casket detail, London, British Museum (http://www.britishmuseum.org – accessed, 12/04/2012)

39. Ormside Bowl, York, Yorkshire Museum (York University Digital Library) Bewcastle East face detail, St Cuthbert‟s churchyard, Bewcastle, Cumbria (own 40.


41. Beast panel, Durham Cassiodorus, Durham, Durham Cathedral Library, (York University Digital Library)

42. Concentric circles, Durham Cassiodorus, second quarter of the eighth century, (York University Digital Library) Lyres: David‟s lyre, Durham Cassiodorus, Sutton Hoo Instrument, (York 43.

University Digital Library)

44. Throne detail, Durham Cassiodorus (York University Digital Library); Throne fragment, San Stephano Rotondo (own photograph) 45a-d (a) Lion Mask, Durham Cassiodorus (York University Digital Library) (b) Lion Mask, Echternach Gospels (York University Digital Library) (c) Lion Mask, Codex Amiatinus (York University Digital Library) (d) Cat Mask, Lindisfarne Gospels (York University Digital Library) 46a-b (a) Codex Amiatinius, Ezra‟s Halo detail (York University Digital Library) (b) Metalic foil detail (York University Digital Library)

47. Hexham 2 Cross, detail, Hexham, Northumberland, (own photograph)

48. Novum Opus detail, Lindisfarne Gospels (York University Digital Library) 49a-b (a.) Enthroned Virgin mosaic, San Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy (own photograph) (b.) Virgin fragment, fresco, Sta Maria in Antiqua, Roman Forum, Rome, Italy, seventh century (own photograph)

50. Curve tool detail, Codex Amiatinus (York University Digital Library)

51. Luke the Evangelist, St Augustine Gospels, Cambridge, Corpus Christi Library, sixth century (York University Digital Library)

52. Christ in Majesty, Codex Amiatinus (York University Digital Library) 53a-b (a) Christ enthroned on the globe of the universe, San Lorenzo, Rome, Italy (own photograph) (b) Christ enthroned on the globe of the universe, Sa Vitale, Ravenna, Italy (own photograph) 54a-b (a) Sky and stars mosaic, dome of Galla Placidia‟s mausoleum, Ravenna, Italy (b) Sky and stars mosaic, apse mosaic of San Apollinare in Classe, Italy (own photographs) 55a-b (a) St Pudenziana, apse mosaic, Rome, Italy, fourth century (own photograph) (b) Apollinare in Classe, triumphal arch mosaic (own photograph) 56a-b (a) David Rex, Durham Cassiodorus (York University Digital Library) (b) Warrior David, Durham Cassiodorus (York University Digital Library) 57a-d (a) Echternach Matthew/ Man Symbol (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) (b) Echternach Mark/ Lion Symbol (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) (c) Echternach Luke/ Calf Symbol (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) (d) Echternach John / Eagle Symbol (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) 58a-d (a) Lindisfarne Gospels, Matthew, fol. 25v (Brown, 2003) (b) St Gall Gospels, Matthew, p.418, eighth or ninth century (York University Digital Library) (c) Lichfield Gospels p.218 Luke/ Calf Symbol, p.218 (York University Digital Library)

59. St Augustine Gospels, Luke page (York University Digital Library) 60a-b (a) Sta Pudenziana „apocalyptic‟, „winged‟ Evangelist symbol detail (own photograph) (b) Galla Placidia dome, „apocalyptic‟ „winged‟ Evangelist symbol detail (own photograph) 61a-b (a) San Vitale „terrestrial‟ Eagle symbol detail (own photograph) (b) San Vitale „terrestrial‟ Calf symbol detail (own photograph)

62. Durrow beast symbols, early seventh (Meehan, 1996)

63. Cambridge-London beast Symbols (Brown, 2003) Echternach beast Symbols, c. 690 (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) 64.

65. Echternach Lion with imposed grid (own artwork) Echternach Canon Tables (6 pages) (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) 66.

67. Cambridge-London Gospels Eagle symbol page (Brown, 2003)

68. Hovingham Panel, Hovingham Church, North Yorkshire, early ninth century (York University Digital Library)

69. Book of Kells Temptation page (Trinity College Library)

70. Echternach Lion symbol page with super imposed grid (own artwork)

71. Reification images, (Lehar, 2003) Echternach Matthew page, c.690, (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – accessed 24.3.2010) 72.

73. Durham Gospels Crucifixion page, (York University Digital Library) Echternach Gospels Matthew page, terminal detail, (www.mandragore.bnf.fr – 74.

accessed 24.3.2010) 75a-d. Echternach Gospel borders, projected views of crosses (own artwork)

76. Evangelist Symbols in stone: Wirksworth Slab (Jane Hawkes, own illustration)

77. Evangelist (John) in metalwork: Brandon Plaque, early ninth century (www.britishmuseum.org – accessed 15.3.2011)

78. Sutton Hoo treasures, British Museum, c.625 (York University Digital Library)

79. Bird mounts, Bucharest National Museum, c. fifth century; Book of Durrow Eagle symbol (York University Digital Library) Book of Durrow Man/Matthew symbol; St Patrick‟s Bell shrine (York University 80.

Digital Library) Echternach Gospel‟s Matthew border detail, „niello‟; Sutton Hoo belt buckle detail, 81.

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