WWW.BOOK.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 12 |

«Präsentation von geförderten Projekten der Stiftung „120 Jahre Universität für Bodenkultur“ Elektronische Publikation zur ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Universität für Bodenkultur Wien

Präsentation

von geförderten Projekten

der Stiftung

„120 Jahre Universität

für Bodenkultur“

Elektronische Publikation

zur Vortragsveranstaltung

der Stiftung am 11.03.2014

Martin H. Gerzabek (Hrsg.)

Rektor &

Josef Glößl (Hrsg.)

Vizerektor für Forschung

und Internationale Forschungskooperation

IMPRESSUM REDAKTION UND LAYOUT

a

Präsentation Mag. Marion Mitter von geförderten Projekten Forschungsservice der Stiftung „120 Jahre Universität Universität für Bodenkultur Wien für Bodenkultur“ Gregor-Mendel-Straße 33 A-1180 Wien, Austria HERAUSGEBERIN Tel.: +43 (0)1 47654-1032 Universität für Bodenkultur Wien Fax: +43 (0)1 47654-2603 Gregor-Mendel-Straße 33 marion.mitter@boku.ac.at www.boku.ac.at/fos-foerderungen.html A-1180 Wien www.boku.ac.at Herausgegeben im März 2014 Geleitwort Die Universität für Bodenkultur Wien steht für nachhaltige Nutzung der natürlichen Ressourcen, ein Konzept, das vor mehr als 300 Jahren aus der Forstwirtschaft heraus entwickelt wurde.

Gerade heute, in Zeiten eines nie dagewesenen Hungers der Menschheit nach Biomasse für vielfältigste Nutzungen und des Klimawandels, sind praxisgerechte aber wissenschaftsbasierte Innovationen und Managementkonzepte in der Forstwirtschaft notwendig. Die zunehmende Bevölkerungsdichte in vielen Regionen der Welt und das sich ändernde Freizeitverhalten führen Martin H. Gerzabek Rektor der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien zu unterschiedlichsten Nutzungsansprüchen. Tourismus, NaturFoto: Robert Newald schutz, Jagd und etwa Schutz vor Naturgefahren sind mit den Erfordernissen einer nachhaltigen Forstwirtschaft in Einklang zu bringen. Forstwissenschaftliche Forschung ist daher gerade heute auf hohem Niveau gefragt und höchst notwendig. Die Universität für Bodenkultur Wien hat in ihren einschlägigen Departments eine international hoch angesehene

–  –  –

PROJEKTE

Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf die Böden eines alpinen Karstökosystems: Resultierende Effekte auf die ökologischen Bodenfunktionen Mag.a Dr.in Ika Djukic 1 Waldbauliche Analyse des Eiben-Generhaltungswaldes in Bad Bleiberg, Kärnten Ao.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Harald Vacik 14 Untersuchungen zum Eschentriebsterben in EschenSamenplantagen in Österreich Dipl.-Ing. Christian Freinschlag 25 Immunabwehr von Nonnenraupen (Lymantria monacha L.) nach Parasitierung durch Schlupfwespen Priv.-Doz.in Dr.in Christa Schafellner 43 Phylogeography of the eight spined lach bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Coleoptera, Scolytinae), in the Palearctic and consequences for bark beetle control Mag.a DIin Raffaela Schaidreiter 55

–  –  –

Mag.a Dr.in Ika Djukic Ao.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Harald Vacik Dipl.-Ing. Christian Freinschlag Priv.-Doz.in Dr.in Christa Schafellner Mag.a DIin Raffaela Schaidreiter Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf die Böden eines alpinen Karstökosystems: Resultierende Effekte auf die ökologischen Bodenfunktionen

Climate Change Impacts on Alpine Soils:

Effects on the Ecological Soil Functions Climate Change Impacts on Alpine soils Ika Djukic Mentoren: Martin Gerzabek & Franz Zehetner Zusammenfassung Die Dissertationsschrift fasst meine Forschungsarbeiten über die wechselseitigen Einwirkungen sich ändernder klimatischer Bedingungen und der Vegetationszusammensetzung auf alpine Bodeneigenschaften und prozesse sowie die Kohlenstoffumsatzdynamik während des Streuabbaus zusammen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Änderungen in Quantität und Qualität der organischen Substanz sowie die Zusammensetzung der mikrobiellen Gemeinschaften vorwiegend von der vorherrschenden Vegetationszusammensetzung, den Kohlenstoffeinträgen sowie der Streuqualität mitbestimmt waren. Eine Bodenerwärmung von 1.5 bzw. 2.7°C, die mittels Translokation simuliert wurde, führte zu einer beschleunigten Umsetzung von zugegebenem Maiskohlenstoff. Der resistente Kohlenstoffpool reagierte dabei stärker auf die experimentelle Bodenerwärmung als der labile Pool. Die Änderung der Substratquantität und –qualität im Verlauf des Abbaus scheint dabei weniger Einfluss auf die mikrobielle Zusammensetzung zu haben, als die jeweiligen Umwelt- / Standortbedingungen, an welche sich die Mikroorganismen relativ schnell angepasst haben. Beide, Langzeitund Kurzzeitstudie unterstreichen die Wichtigkeit der Berücksichtigung von unterschiedlichen Parametern, zusätzlich zum Klima, für das bessere Verständnis und die Simulation von biogeochemischen Stoffkreisläufen in alpinen Ökosystemen.

Abstract

The dissertation dossier summarizes my research work on mutual effects of changing climatic conditions and shifting vegetation zones on alpine soil properties and processes as well as C turnover dynamics during the litter decomposition. The studies revealed that the soil organic matter quantity and quality as well as the microbial community composition are strongly affected by the vegetation composition, their C input and litter quality. A simulated soil warming of 1.5 and 2.7°C, respectively, by the altitudinal soil translocation experiment, resulted in a significantly accelerated turnover of added maize carbon; whereby the resistant carbon pool responded much stronger to experimental warming compared to the labile pool. The microbial community composition and function significantly affected substrate decomposition rates only in the later stage of decomposition and appeared to be more influenced by prevailing environmental / site conditions than by changes in substrate quantity and quality in the course of the decomposition. Both long-term and short-term studies highlighted the importance of different variables, besides temperature, in decomposition processes;





hence, their consideration in modeling studies is of eminent relevance for a better understanding and simulation of biogeochemical cycling in alpine environments.

1. Introduction

Global warming and associated environmental changes are predicted to be particularly pronounced at temperate Alpine and high latitude zones this century (IPCC 2001; ACIA 2005). Given that mountain regions occupy one fifth of the earth’s continental areas and comprise a high percentage of the total global soil carbon pool, it can be assumed that even small changes in mineralization rates of these large soil pools could have significant effects on the concentration of atmospheric CO2.

However, the future dynamics of organic carbon in the soils, whether soil will function as a C sink or source, is still uncertain and is one of the key issues in climate change research. Since global change affects different factors (e.g., climatic variables, vegetation and soil properties) it is of essential importance to integrate and study the multitude of parameters that characterize physical, chemical and biological changes for a better fundamental understanding of global change scenarios. A parameter such as soil organic matter (SOM) deserves special attention in this context because of its key role in many important soil processes, its rapid response to environmental changes, and its feedback to the atmospheric climate system.

The overall objective of our study was to enhance the understanding of climate change impacts on SOM dynamics in alpine ecosystems at different temporal scales.

The specific objectives were:

• To characterize the long-term steady state of SOM quantity and quality along an elevation gradient (900 to 1900 meters above sea level) by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Simultaneous Thermal Analysis.

• To analyse the long-term steady state of microbial community composition and activity along the studied elevation gradient by using Phospholipid Fatty Acid, Ergosterol Analysis and Dimethyl Sulphoxide Reduction.

• To monitor translocation-induced short-term changes in C turnover dynamics, microbial community composition and function during decomposition of isotopically labelled plant litter by using isotope ratio mass spectroscopy.

<

–  –  –

Fig.1 Studied climosequence at the Hochschwab massif

2.1 Long-term changes of soil organic matter and soil microbial community along an altitudinal climosequence Many climosequence studies report soil organic carbon (SOC) and N concentrations / stocks to increase with decreasing temperature (e.g. HART and PERRY, 1999; GANUZA and ALMENDROS, 2003; GARTEN, 2004;

KANE et al., 2005; KUEPPERS and HARTE, 2005; DAI and HUANG, 2006); however, the findings in the literature are not unequivocal. For example, LEIFELD et al. (2005) showed that while SOC concentrations under permanent grassland increased linearly with altitude in the Swiss Alps, no relationship was found between altitude and SOC stocks, which was a result of shallow soils and high rock contents at high elevations. GARCIAPAUSAS et al. (2007) even reported decreasing SOC stocks with increasing elevation in grasslands of the Pyrenees, which they attributed to temperature limitation of net primary production. In our studies in the Austrian Limestone Alps, we found increasing SOC stocks from 900 to 1500 m above sea level (asl), which decreased again from 1500 to 1900 m asl (DJUKIC et al., 2010). We attributed this decrease mainly to harsh climate and short growing seasons at high elevations, which limits net primary production and C inputs to the soil. Several climosequence studies have provided insight into the temperature-dependence of OM turnover dynamics under natural steady-state conditions. For example, SIMMONS et al. (1996) reported slower forest floor OM decomposition under cooler conditions along a climatic gradient. HITZ et al.(2001) found that in alpine grasslands, above-ground phytomass, production rate and turnover time decreased while the importance of below-ground phytomass and its production rate increase with altitude. KANE et al. (2003) reported decreasing soil respiration with decreasing temperature and shorter growing season along an elevation gradient. Likewise, GARTEN (2004) reported in-situ loss rate of 13C from labeled forest soils to be inversely related to elevation and directly related to mean annual temperature. On the other hand, KUEPPERS and HARTE (2005) found no significant climate trends of total annual soil CO2 flux along a climatic gradient in the Rocky Mountains. Recent studies on litter decomposition along climatic gradients have confirmed the influence of temperature and moisture on decomposition processes, but also emphasized the importance of litter composition / quality in this context (SJÖGERSTEN and WOOKEY, 2004; CORNELISSEN et al., 2007; PARTON et al., 2007). CORNELISSEN et al. (2007) concluded that the warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes could actually result in a negative feedback to global warming. Other climosequence studies have revealed climate-induced differences in SOM characteristics and soil microbial community composition. AMELUNG et al.

(1997) reported that polysaccharides persisted less and alkyl structures were enriched in warmer areas of the Great Plains prairie. AMELUNG et al.

(1999a) found that increasing precipitation and temperature led to decreasing proportions of bacterial-derived amino sugars and increasing proportions of glucosamine (produced by fungi) in native grassland soils. In the finer particle size fractions of the same soils, the degree of lignin decomposition decreased with increasing temperature, possibly because there was a lack of additional C sources needed for the cometabolic decay of lignin (AMELUNG et al., 1999b). MARTIN-NETO et al. (1998) showed that OM humification increased with increasing rainfall in an arid-to-humid climosequence of the Argentine Pampa grassland. FAZ CANO et al. (2002) reported that soils of the mesomediterranean zone had a higher content of Oalkyl C and a lower content of aromatic C than soils of the warmer thermomediterranean zone of southern Spain. KANE et al. (2005) showed that the proportion of (relatively labile) light -fraction SOM decreased with increasing heat sum in interior Alaska. Similarly, DALMOLIN et al. (2006) found increasing proportions of O-alkyl C with increasing elevation (cooler and moister climate) in southern Brazil, which indicates accumulation of OM with larger carbohydrate contents and is a sign of a lower degree of OM decomposition. In our studies in the Austrian Limestone Alps, we found the aliphatic Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) band (2920 cm-1) to be lower in low-elevation forest sites compared to high-elevation shrubland and grassland sites; however, most other FTIR bands did not change with altitude but were related to specific site conditions, such as vegetation composition and associated differences in soil pH (DJUKIC et al., 2010). A few studies have pointed out shifts in microbial community composition along altitudinal / climatic gradients. For example, in the Austrian Central Alps, the fungal population and relative amount of Gram-negative bacteria increased with increasing elevation (MARGESIN et al., 2009), while decreasing diversity of soil fungi with increasing elevation had been reported earlier (SCHINNER and GSTRAUNTHALER, 1981). FURTHERMORE, MA et al.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 12 |


Similar works:

«Einfluss eines durchblutungsfördernden EinreibeMassagemittels auf die Anzahl der durchgeführten Schulterund Nackenübungen am Arbeitsplatz LUCY BURLET Studentin HES – Studiengang Physiotherapie CHRISTINE SIMONET Studentin HES – Studiengang Physiotherapie Tutorin: GENEVIÈVE PASCHE DIPLOMARBEIT EINGEREICHT IM JULI 2005 ZUR ERREICHUNG DES DIPLOMS ZUR PHYSIOTHERAPEUTIN HES Hochschule Wallis, Bereich Gesundheit und soziale Arbeit Studiengang Physiotherapie Leukerbad, im Juli 2006...»

«Proceedings of the 1st ICA European Symposium on Cartography Georg Gartner and Haosheng Huang (Editors) Vienna, Austria November 10–12, 2015 Editors Georg Gartner, georg.gartner@tuwien.ac.at Haosheng Huang, haosheng.huang@tuwien.ac.at Research Group Cartography Vienna University of Technology This document contains the online proceedings of the 1st ICA European Symposium on Cartography (EuroCarto 2015), held on November 10-12, 2015 in Vienna, Austria. The symposium was organized by the...»

«Белая книга: стандарты и нормы хосписной и паллиативной помощи в Европе: часть 1 (White Paper on standards and norms for hospice and palliative care in Europe: part 1) Рекомендации Европейской ассоциации паллиативной помощи В этом официальном документе Европейской ассоциации паллиативной помощи (ЕАПП) Lukas...»

«Daniela Krollpfeiffer Anna Kosmützky International Branch Campus Eine Literaturstudie Kassel 2012 INCHER Working Papers – 1 Daniela Krollpfeiffer Anna Kosmützky International Branch Campus Eine Literaturstudie Kassel: INCHER-Kassel INCHER Working Papers – 1 International Centre for Higher Education Research (INCHER-Kassel) Universität Kassel Mönchebergstr. 17 D-34109 Kassel www.uni-kassel.de/incher Redaktion: Christiane Rittgerott...»

«Frankfurt am Main KOMMUNALER Deutschland KLIMASCHUTZ Wer sich für die Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung und die damit verbundenen Technologien interessiert, besucht am besten Frankfurt am Main. Aber auch über dieses Thema hinaus kann die Banken-Metropole am Main – Mitglied bei Energie-Cités seit 2000auf eine recht erfolgreiche Klimaschutzbilanz der vergangenen 10 Jahre zurückblicken.DIE STADT Hamburg Die Stadt Frankfurt/Main (640.000 Einwohner) wurde am Ufer des Mains im 8. Jahrhundert an der Stelle...»

«New Venture Valuation by Venture Capitalists: An Integrative Approach Dingkun Ge Assistant Professor, San Francisco State University James M. Mahoney Joseph T. Mahoney Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of New York Professor of Strategic Management Abstract How to valuate accurately a new venture is a critical and under−researched question in entrepreneurial financing. Leveraging established theories in strategic management, this research study develops an integrative theoretical framework to...»

«Sermon #2968 Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit 1 “HIS GREAT LOVE” NO. 2968 A SERMON PUBLISHED ON THURSDAY, JULY 29, 1905. DELIVERED BY C. H. SPURGEON, AT THE METROPOLITAN TABERNACLE, NEWINGTON, ON LORD’S-DAY EVENING, AUGUST 15, 1875. “His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in sins.” Ephesians 2:4, 5. You notice, in this chapter, the remarkable change of subject which commences at the 4th verse. Paul had been giving a very sad description of what even the saints are...»

«Bericht Der K K Krankenanstalt Rudolph Bericht Der K.K. Krankenanstalt Rudolph-Stiftung Stiftung Both clear furniture if small level reports is the owner in you will pay your face to representatives and much organizations. From epub, right video transaction leadership is some latest borrower sale air as you. Me give positive and maybe of you of all merchandise. Motivational in the minimum or provide that format of that savvy success and bring this cheeses to provide the good on loan. Make you...»

«2009-2014 EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT WORKING GROUP TO EU-MONTENEGRO STABILISATION AND ASSOCIATION PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE WGMO_PV(2012) MINUTES of the Fourth Meeting of THE EU-MONTENEGRO STABILISATION AND ASSOCIATION PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE Podgorica, 2-3 April 2012 Acting as the Chair, Mr. Ranko Krivokapić, Chairman of the Montenegrin Parliamentary delegation to the EU-Montenegro Stabilisation and Association Parliamentary Committee, opened the first working day of the fourth Meeting. Greeting the...»

«International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences © 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 4 (4): 855-862 Science Explorer Publications Effect of place attachment in creating sense of place Case study: Tajrish old Bazaar and new commercial center Yazdanfar. Seyed Abbas1, Heidari. Ali Akbar2, Behdadfar. Nazgol3, Eskandari. Mohammad4 1. Assistant Professor of Architecture, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, IRAN 2. PhD Candidate in Architectural...»

«Introduction to the Special Issue “Der Anstieg der Management-Vergütung: Markt oder Macht?“ Margit Osterloh und Katja Rost Managementvergütung, optimale Verträge, Managermacht Executive compensation, optimal contract view, managerial power view Der weltweite Anstieg der Gehälter für angestellte Manager wird kontrovers diskutiert. Auf der einen Seite argumentieren Vertreter „optimaler Verträge“, dass der Anstieg der Gehälter durch funktionierende Märkte verursacht ist. Aus dieser...»

«The algebra of metric betweenness II: geometry and equational characterization of weakly median graphs Hans-J¨rgen Bandelt u Fakult¨t f¨r Mathematik, Informatik und Naturwissenschaften, au Universit¨t Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany a bandelt@math.uni-hamburg.de Victor Chepoi Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale, Facult´ des Sciences de Luminy, e Universit´ de la M´diterran´e, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France e e e chepoi@lif.univ-mrs.fr Footnotes: (1) 2000...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.