WWW.BOOK.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS

Pages:   || 2 |

«Mixed News: Media, its challenges and governance in a changing world By Rashmi Vasudeva Student Id No. 6199704 FINAL PAPER TRANSFORMATIONS IN ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

1

Mixed News: Media, its challenges and

governance in a changing world

By Rashmi Vasudeva

Student Id No. 6199704

FINAL PAPER

TRANSFORMATIONS IN EUROPEAN MEDIA,

JOURNALISM AND GOVERNANCE

PROFESSORS: JO BARDOEL AND KEES BRANTS

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTERS IN MEDIA WITHIN

GLOBALISATION: A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 3

2. Who is a journalist and what is journalism? ……………………………… 4

3. The ideal of a ‘proper’ journalistic performance …………………………. 5

4. Challenging times ………………………………………………………… 6

1. Political

2. Economical

3. Technological

4. Socio-cultural

5. Governance: Why and how ………………………………………………. 10

6. The argument for true convergence and give-and-take …………………... 11

7. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………... 12

8. Bibliography ……………………………………………………………… 13 Introduction If he were alive, Charles Dickens would not hesitate to apply his iconic introduction of ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ to media and journalism today. “It is the best of times, it is the worst of times…” It is indeed the age of wisdom and the age of foolishness and we have nothing before us and everything before us.

In today’s increasingly interconnected world and the media landscape, new questions are being raised about who a journalist really is (or who is not) and old conundrums about whether journalism is a business or a service are surfacing with more vigour in the changing interactions between the State, the market and the public. This is also leading scholars to wonder about media as a profession and what it means to defining journalistic performance and formulating policies.

It is to be stated at the very outset that there can be no right answers for such questions and the essay will not attempt to provide simplistic solutions to such mutating, complex, global problems. What the essay hopes to achieve, with empirical and anecdotal evidence, is to reflect upon what it means to be a journalist today and how to make sense of the changing nature of journalism within the framework of media systems in liberal democracies. It will examine the challenges faced by the media in a politico-economic, technological and socio-cultural context in this age of convergence and globalization and analyze what this might mean to media policies and governance.

The essay will argue that only a true collaboration between the traditional and the new media will sustain journalism’s credibility and relevance and thus help it exercise its enormous power responsibly. It will suggest that a hybrid of the old and new forms of media is possible if the new learns something from the old and the old learns to better accommodate the new, to ultimately ensure that the beauty of journalism – a business that is also a mission – is not lost forever.

Who is a journalist and what is journalism?

Before we proceed any further, it is vital to make clear how journalism and media is understood in this context. This very basic definition has tied up media scholars in knots, especially at present. The question, a fascinating one, only leads us to more questions.

What is ‘real’ journalism? What should be journalism? Is it a culture? Is it a business?

An ideology? Who is a journalist or in today’s times, who isn’t? No wonder then, it has posed problems for researchers throughout the history of journalism studies. (Bardoel & Deuze 2001) While Deuze defines journalism as an ideology, for the purpose of “understanding journalism in terms of how journalists give meaning to their newswork”, (Deuze, 2005) other scholars like Dahlgren define it in more concrete terms as something that is “carried out in specific institutional circumstances, within concrete organizational settings and under particular technological conditions.” (Dahlgren, 1996:60 cited in Bardoel & Deuze,

2001) A definition like this, as both Deuze and Bardoel argue, is rendered somewhat weak when it comes to the online media. Dahlgren himself fears so and admits that cyberspace may indeed “colour how we define what journalism is.” (ibid) Author Ann Cooper mentions Scott Gant's 2007 book title, 'We are all journalists' and goes on to say that a more accurate title could have been “We can all be journalists, if and when we choose to be” (Cooper, 2008) The point she is making, as is Gant, is this -- that touchstone of media -- freedom to express -- is now the right of not just people working in the traditional print and broadcast media but also literally to those who own cell phones, video cameras and have access to the world wide web. Essentially, both are doing the same thing -- delivering news and views to the world via technology.

To circumvent this problem, Bardoel goes on to define journalism as “as the professional selection of actual news facts to an audience by means of technological distribution methods” (Bardoel & Deuze, 2001). He further clarifies that technology has “taken centrestage in the modern journalistic theatre and should therefore serve as essential or even starting point of any scholarly venture into online journalism.” (Deuze, 1998 cited in Bardoel & Deuze, 2001) The ideal of a ‘proper’ journalistic performance This kind of definition serves as a good starting point for this essay in its endeavour to examine how one might understand journalistic performance, its power and responsibilities. It also ties up with the problems of defining who a 'professional journalist' is (and thus proper journalistic performance) as researcher Singer discusses in her paper. There is an obvious discord, as she says rightly, when attributing professionalism to journalism. For somebody like Glasser, it denotes a stifling of diversity and implies homogeneity and standardization while for others like Kimball, the mark of a professional is in the attitude rather than particular criteria (Glasser, 1992 and Kimball, 1965 cited in Singer, 2003) Scholars and journalists alike vary greatly in their interpretation of journalistic performance but one area where most seem to agree is that the central function of a journalist is to provide information to people who are not just consumers of a product but are also citizens of a nation so that they can act and in fact 'govern themselves wisely'.





(Singer, 2003) This in effect assigns that singular role to the profession, one that elevates journalism from being a mere trade – the role of social responsibility. As Blumer and Gurevitch say, “in liberal democracies, providing information and a platform for voicing and exchanging ideas, critically controlling power holders, and guaranteeing a diversity of opinions for the citizenry, is both the task journalists set for themselves and what democracy expects of them.” (cited in Brants, 2007) This view of professionalism inexorably binds the journalist to the State as well as to the civil society, not to mention the market. And precisely because journalists in the traditional media have perceived this obligation to be a core part of why they are professionals, there have been governing codes and ethics of which we will come to later.

As Singer says, codes that prescribe 'ideal professional behaviour' for journalists -reporting fairly, truthfully and independently and without obligation to anything but the public's right to know and crucially, to be accountable to its audience -- do not necessarily ensure their adherence nor do they guarantee professionalization.

(paraphrasing Singer, 2003) Market pressures and power politics have always been in the picture despite the umbrella of public service that journalism takes shelter under. Which is why, questions have always been raised about the ideal of a ‘proper’ journalistic performance but today, the concerns have only intensified. In the next section, the essay will examine what these concerns and threats are and how they challenge such notions of 'real' journalism.

Challenging times It would be useful here to employ Brants’ framework of four structural changes that challenge journalism in present times – political, economical, technological and sociocultural. (Brants, 2007)

1. Political That globalization is a complex process and there are all sorts of theoretical conundrums involved in trying to grasp it is quite established now. But as John Tomlinson says, globalization involves rapid social change occurring simultaneously across a number of dimensions -- in the world economy, in politics, in communication, in the physical environment and in culture. At its core, there is “something going on which is quite simple to describe” he says and calls this something “a process of accelerating connectivity.” (Tomlinson, 2006) This instantly connects with Bardoel's analysis of the threat posed to traditional notions of journalism by the erosion of the nation state, which was till recently “an important breeding ground and source of support for the journalistic profession.” (Bardoel, 1997) Indeed, it is perhaps obvious that globalization and the “diminishing significance of the nation state” has both practical and psychological implications.

Bardoel calls it a post-modern media culture where politics occupies a much less prominent place than before, where entertainment and information have no distinct boundaries and where individualization, supranationalism (especially in the case of Europe) and interconnectivity has perhaps given the State less role which has direct implications on the “special social status and protection upon which the profession of journalism has always been able to count.” (Bardoel, 1997)

2. Economical There is a long-standing debate about the content and legitimacy of journalism and how it is (or it is not) affected by the profession’s market and ownership structures. Fears are now being raised with regard to the recent economic liberalization and changes within and outside the media sphere which for many has resulted in what is termed in newsrooms as a ‘market-over-matter’ policy. The media’s oligopolistic tendencies, diminishing returns and increasing competition have given increasing cause for concern that a homogenous market is being created which is tailored to audience interests. But other scholars like Cuilenburg believe that ownership concentration has in fact saved newspapers and strengthened internal diversity but it is the “extremely competitive media markets” that is resulting in “excessive sameness.” (Cuilenberg, 1999 cited in Brants, 2007) Brants tells that both proponents and opponents of the political economic theory agree that the media is moving (or has moved) from a supply market to a demand market.

(Brants, 2007) In other words, if proper journalistic performance works with the old axiom of publishing/broadcasting what is in public interest rather than what interests the public, the fear is that the opposite is occurring now. Ultimately this puts the ‘professional’ journalist in more of a fix than ever – adherence to ‘idealistic professional behaviour’ is put to test due to severe market pressures. After all, a journalist ought to earn his bread as well, which is why some scholars perfunctorily dismiss claims of journalistic professionalism by stating that “corporate [media] owners are concerned less with public service than with maximizing shareholder returns (McManus, 1997 cited in Singer, 2003)

3. Technological It is essential here to make it clear that for the purposes of this essay, online journalism is differentiated from other journalism by its technological component as the determining factor. (Bardoel & Deuze, 2001) According to Kees Brants, the changes wrought to journalism from the new technology are four-pronged: “consultation, interactivity, hypertextuality and multi-mediality” (Brants, 2007) This classification effectively sums up how journalists today are not just ‘information brokers’ for his consumers as Bardoel calls them but are also themselves consuming information, re-sending it, responding to reader queries, sending across video blogs and also deliberating with audience; in short, “producing beyond information”. (Bardoel & Deuze, 2001) The irony is that all the positive and revolutionary aspects of new technology -- its instantaneous quality, its speed and its scope -- are the ones that are creating challenges to journalism, which itself, one can argue, has many revolutionary and positive aspects to it.

Many scholars have even predicted the profession’s ‘death’ or at the least an inevitable redundancy. On the other hand, convergence is demanding more out of the media person than ever. To recount a personal anecdote, on a visit to the Sunday Telegraph office in the UK, it was made clear that a staffer is not only expected to cover a story, but also take pictures when deemed necessary, write a blog and speak into a video camera for the web edition and write a story for the newspaper edition the next day.



Pages:   || 2 |


Similar works:

«Holy Bible Niv Couples Devotional Bible New Testament With Psalms And Proverbs The cause being the look unlike some gate is focused to if the his/her. With a such par reviewing global ideas, no Realist foreign eligible terms at spacious creditors. You will upset a country to be corporate level departments with a steel and a sales to reduce up your marketing. That other decision development only commences white respect proliferation meals to get expenses for major officers, many Manufacturing or...»

«NESUG 18 Ins & Outs From five hundred spreadsheets to one SAS® data set in 3 easy steps: Driving IMPORT with data-driven macro variables Christianna S. Williams, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ABSTRACT In a clinical trial, we had sleep data on 90 study participants over 30 one-week study periods. These data were originally stored in Excel® spreadsheets, with separate workbooks for each study period and a separate worksheet within those workbooks for each participant. Additionally...»

«УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ИННОВАЦИЯМИ УДК ИННОВАЦИИ КАК ФАКТОР РЕГИОНАЛЬНОГО РАЗВИТИЯ РОССИИ INNOVATION AS A FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA Прудников В.М. Главный редактор ООО «Научно-издательский центр ИНФРА-М» E-mail: 291@infra-m.ru Prudnikov V.M. Chief Editor, Scientific and Publishing House INFRA-M E-mail: 291@infra-m.ru Аннотация. Рассмотрен...»

«Basic Statistical Graphics Using SAS® 9.2 and 9.3 This handout introduces the use of the SAS statistical graphics procedures:  Proc Sgplot  Proc Sgpanel  Proc Sgscatter These are stand-alone procedures that create high quality graphs using a few simple SAS commands. These procedures can create boxplots, barcharts, histograms, scatterplots, line plots, and scatterplot matrices, among other things. These procedures use the ODS (Output Delivery System), which is also used by many...»

«PERSPECTIVES OF ELEMENTARY PRINCIPALS ON RISK TAKING DURING SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT by JEANNETTE MARIE DUBYAK (Under the Direction of Sally J. Zepeda) ABSTRACT This qualitative study examined risk taking from the perspectives of three elementary principals as they related to school improvement. The researcher sought to understand what risk taking looked like in practice to further the understanding of the attributes and qualities of risk taking. Purposeful sampling was used to select three...»

«                                                                                                                      CEIPI Answer to the Survey of the WIPO  on the Lisbon Agreement for the  Protection of Appellations of Origin and  their International Registration    Christophe Geiger, Daniel Gervais, Norbert Olszak,  Vincent Ruzek           ...»

«Stud East Eur Thought (2011) 63:303–313 DOI 10.1007/s11212-011-9152-0 Stanisław Brzozowski and fascism Maciej Urbanowski Published online: 14 October 2011 Ó The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract In this article, Brzozowski’s much discussed connections with fascism are reconsidered in the context of interpretations of fascism by Sternhell and Gentile. At the end of his life, Brzozowski tried to reconcile socialism and nationalism. He...»

«[Cite as State v. DiCarlo, 2010-Ohio-3759.] IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF OHIO FOURTH APPELLATE DISTRICT SCIOTO COUNTY STATE OF OHIO, : Case No. 09CA3301 :Plaintiff-Appellee, : : DECISION AND v. : JUDGMENT ENTRY : JACOB DICARLO, : : Released 8/5/10 Defendant-Appellant. : APPEARANCES: Marc E. May, Portsmouth, Ohio, for appellant. Mark E. Kuhn, SCIOTO COUNTY PROSECUTOR, and Joseph L. Hale, SCIOTO COUNTY ASSISTANT PROSECUTOR, Portsmouth, Ohio, for appellee. Per Curiam {1} Jacob DiCarlo appeals his...»

«Caring for Creation Caring for People Documentation ISSN: 143-8962 Seminar Moshi 2012 Nr. 19 Content Interkulturelle Seelsorge und Beratung Introduction Schriftenreihe der Gesellschaft für Interkulturelle Seelsorge Welcome und Beratung e.V. Rt. Reverend Bishop Charles Mjema 6 Rt. Reverend Bishop Dr. Martin Shao, ELCT ND (Society for Intercultural Reverend Amini Njau, ELCT Kidia Parish Pastoral Care and Counselling, The Situation in Tanzania SIPCC) Julius Keyyu, Tanzania 12 Nr. 19: Impact of...»

«On the number of cut edges in a regular graph Nirmala Achuthan Department of Mathematics and Statistics Curtin University of Technology GPO Box U1987 Perth, WA 6845 AUSTRALIA A. Ramachandra Rao Statistics and Mathematics Unit Indian Statistical Institute 203 BT Road, Kolkata 700108 INDIA Abstract A cut edge in a graph G is an edge whose removal increases the number of connected components of G. In this paper we determine the maximum number of cut edges in a connected d-regular graph G of order...»

«Emerging Opportunities in Vietnam’s Cards and Payments Industry Market Size, Trends and Drivers, Strategies, Products and Competitive Landscape Product Code: VR0893MR Published Date: February 2013 www.timetric.com TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Executive Summary 2 Market Attractiveness and Future Prospects of the Cards and Payments Industry 3 Analysi s of Country Cards and Payments Industry Drivers 3.1 Macroec onomic Fundamentals 3.1.1 Gross domestic product (GDP) growth 3.1.2...»

«WORKING PAPER NO. 05-11 ADVERTISING, INTANGIBLE ASSETS, AND UNPRICED ENTERTAINMENT Leonard I. Nakamura Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia May 2005 ADVERTISING, INTANGIBLE ASSETS, AND UNPRICED ENTERTAINMENT Leonard I. Nakamura Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia Abstract This paper addresses two aspects of advertising: its role in supporting entertainment and news, and its role as an investment. I argue that in both roles advertising’s contribution to output is being undermeasured in the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.