WWW.BOOK.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, abstracts, thesis
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |

«submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY WITH SPECIALISATION IN ADULT EDUCATION at the UNIVERSITY OF ...»

-- [ Page 22 ] --

This research explored the gender differences of adult male and female learners when acquiring English as a second or foreign language at one specific language learning centre in Qatar. This study was conducted by looking at the gender differences in cognitive styles, their motivation towards studying, the strategies they employ during language acquisition, the anxieties these learners experience, as well as the best teaching practices to accommodate them. The adult learner comes to the language learning classroom with a wealth of information, sometimes highly qualified in a specific field of expertise, but just unable to communicate effectively and fluently in the target language. These language learners are from the local Qatari population and a variety of nationalities from other Arabic speaking countries, as well as expatriates from around the world. Lecturers have a great responsibility to accommodate these learners in terms of their cultural beliefs, social needs and individual personalities, while at the same time, applying good teaching practices for language learning to be successful.

It is hoped that this study would in future be beneficial to other lecturers from native English speaking countries and that the findings would be insightful to them.

Bibliography

Adler, N.J., Campbell, J. And Laurent, A. 1989. In search of appropriate methodology:

From outside the People’s Republic of China looking in. Journal of International Business Studies. 20(1): 61-74.

Al-Buainain, H. 2009. Language learning strategies employed by English major at Qatar University: questions and queries. Asiatic, 2010. Vol 4, No 2.

Anderson, J.R. 1993. Problem solving and learning. American Psychologist. 48(1):35Babbie, E, & Mouton, J. 2001. The Practice of social research. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

Bainbridge, H. (ed). Marhaba. Spring/Summer 2013. Qatar.

–  –  –

Benson, M.J. 1991. Attitudes and motivation towards English: A survey of Japanese freshmen. RELC Journal, 22(1): 34-48.

Billett, S. 1998. Appropriation and ontogeny: identifying compatibility between cognitive and socio-cultural contributions to adult learning and development.

International Journal of Education, 17 (1): 21-34.

Block, D. 2002. Language, gender and SLA. [Electronic version]. Quaderns de Filologia.

Estudis Linguistics, Vol VII, 49-73.

Bogdan, R.C. & Taylor, S.J. 1975. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A phenomenological approach to social sciences. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Bogdan, R.C & Biklen, S.K. 1992. Qualitative research for education: an introduction to theory and methods. (2nd Ed). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.

Brooks, J.G. & Brooks, M.G. 1993. In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brown, J.D., Robson, G. & Rosenkjar, P. 2001. Personality, motivation, anxiety, strategies and language proficiency of Japanese students. In Dornyei, Z. & Schmidt, R.

(ed). Motivation and second language acquisition. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

(pp 361-398).

Cameron, D. 2005. Language, gender and sexuality: Current issues and new directions.

Applied linguistics, 26(4): 482-502.

Cameron, D. 2006. On language and sexual politics. Abingdon: Routledge.

Chaddock, D. 2008. Qatar. London: Stacey International. (pp 130-132).

Chamot, A.U. & O’Malley, J.M. 1996. Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA). In Oxford, R. (ed). 1996. Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives. Manoa: University of Hawaii Press. (pp 167-174).

Chen, X., Sachdev, P.S., Wen, W. & Anstey, K.J. 2007. Sex differences in regional gray matter in healthy individuals aged 44-48 years: A voxel-based morphometric study.

Neurolmage, 36(3): 691–699.

Cheng, Y.S. 2002. Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 35(6), 647-656.

Cohen, L. & Manion, L. 2001. Research methods in education. (5th ed). London:

Routledge Falmer.

Cook, S. 1996. College students’ perspectives on culture learning in a required French course. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY.

Cook, V.J. 2003. Second language acquisition: Effects of the second language on the first language. Clevedon, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Cortazzi, M. & Jin, L. 1996. Cultures of learning: learning classrooms in China. In Coleman, H. (ed). Society and the language class. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. (pp 169-206).

Crano, W.D. & Brewer, M.B. 2002. Principles and methods of social research. (2nd ed).

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crawford, J. & Krashen, S. 2007. English learners in American classrooms. New York:

Scholastic.

Creswell, J. 2003. Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods nd approach. (2 ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Crookes, G. & Schmidt, R.W. 1991. Motivation: reopening the research agenda.

Language Learning, 41: 469-512.

Delport, C.S.L & Roestenburg, W.J.H. 2011. Quantitative date-collection methods:

questionnaires, checklists, structured observation and structured interview schedules.





In De Vos, AS., Strydom, H., Fouche, CB. & Delport, DSL. 2011. Research at grass roots.

(4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik. (pp 171-205).

Denscombe, M. 2007. The good research guide for small-scale social research projects.

(3rd ed). Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Deuchar, M. 1988. A pragmatic account of women’s use of standard speech. In Coates, J. & Cameron, D. (ed). 1988. Women in their speech communities: new perspectives on language and sex. London: Longman. (Pp 27-32).

De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouche, CB. & Delport, DSL. 2011. Research at grass roots.

(4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Dornyei, Z. 1994. Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78: 273-284.

Dornyei, Z. & Clement, R. 2001. Motivational characteristics of learning different target languages: results of a nationwide survey. In Dornyei, Z. & Schmidt, R. (ed). 2001.

Motivation and second language acquisition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

(pp 399-432).

Douglas, D. 2000. Assessing languages for specific purposes. Cambridge language assessment series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dreyer, C. & Oxford, R. 1996. Learning strategies and other predictors of ESL proficiency among Afrikaans-speakers in South Africa. In Oxford, R. 1996a. Language Learning Strategies around the World: Cross-cultural Perspectives. Manoa: University of Hawaii Press. (pp 157-166).

Eckert, P. & McConnell-Ginet, S. 2003. Language and gender. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ehrman, M. & Oxford, R. 1989. Effects of gender differences, career choice, and psychological type on adult language learning strategies. Modern Language Journal.

73(1): 1-13.

Ellis, R. 1997. The study of second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Escribano, P.D. 2004. Exploring cognition processes in second language acquisition: the case of cognates and false-friends in EST. IBERICA 7[2004]: 87-106.

Falk, J. 1978. Linguistics and language: A survey of basic concepts and implications. (2nd ed). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Ferdman, B. 1990. Literacy and cultural identity. Harvard Educational Review, 60, (2):

181-204.

Fouche, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L. 2011. Introduction to the research process. In: De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouche, C.B., Delport, and C.S.L. (ed). Research at grass roots. (4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik. (pp 61-76).

Fouche, C.B. & Schurink, W. 2011. Qualitative research designs. In: De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouche, C.B., Delport, and C.S.L. (ed). Research at grass roots. (4th ed).

Pretoria: Van Schaik. (pp 307-327).

–  –  –

Gardner, R. 1985. Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W.E. 1972. Attitudes and motivation: Second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Gardner, R.C. & MacIntyre, P.D. 1993. A student’s contributions to second-language learning. Part II: Affective variables. Language Teaching, 26: 1-11.

Gardner, R.C. & Tremblay, P.F. 1994. On motivation, research agendas, and theoretical frameworks. The Modern Language Journal, 78: 359-368.

Gardner, R. & Smythe, P. 1975. Motivation and second language acquisition. Canadian Modern Language Review, 31: 218-230.

Gardner, R.C. 2010. Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model. New York: Peter Lang.

Gass, S.M. & Selinker, L. 2001. Second language acquisition: An introductory course.

(2nd ed). London: Routledge.

Gauvin, M. 1993. The development of spatial thinking in everyday activity.

Development Review, 13 (1): 92-121.

Glaser, R. 1989. Expertise and learning: how do we think about instructional processes now that we have discovered knowledge structures? In Klahr, D. & Kotovsky, K. (ed).

Complex information processing: the impact of Herbert A. Simon. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

(pp 269-282).

Glaser, R. 1990. Re-emergence of learning theory within instructional research.

American Psychologist. 45(1): 29-39.

Glasman, M. 1994. All things being equal: the two roads of Piaget and Vigotsky.

Development Review, 14(2), 186-214.

Gray, J. 1992. Men are from Mars, women are from Venus: A practical guide for

improving communication and getting what you want in your relationships. New York:

Harper Collins.

Greeff, M. 2011. Information collecting: interviewing. (pp 341-375). In De Vos, AS., Strydom, H., Fouche, CB. & Delport, DSL. 2011. Research at grass roots. (4th ed).

Pretoria: Van Schaik.

–  –  –

Grosjean, F. 2001. The bilingual’s language modes. In Nicol, J. (ed). 2001. One mind, two languages. Oxford: Blackwell. (pp 1-22).

GU, Y. 2002. Gender, academic major, and vocabulary learning strategies of Chinese EFL learners. RELC Journal. 33(1): 35-54.

Gulf Times. June 20, 2013.

Hedge, T. 2000. Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Horwitz, E.K. 2001. Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 21: 112-126.

Horwitz, E.K. & Young, D.J. (ed). 1991. Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Horwitz, M.B., Horwitz, E.K. & Cope, J.A. 1986. Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal. 70(2): 125-132.

Hudson, G. 2000. Essential introductory linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M. & Lyons, T. 1991. Early vocabulary growth: relation to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology. 27:236-248.

Hymes, D.H. 1972. On communicative competence. In Pride, J.B. & Holmes, J. (ed).

Sociolinguistics. Baltimore, USA: Penguin Education, Penguin Books, Ltd. (pp 269-293).

Inhelder, B. & Piaget, J. 1958. The growth of logical thinking – an essay on the construction of formal operational structures. (trans Parsons, A. And Milgram, S.

London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Jackson, D.N. & Rushton, P. 2006. Males have greater g: sex differences in general mental ability from 100 000 17- to 18-year-olds on the Scholastic Achievement Test.

Intelligence. 34: 479-486.

Jackson, J. 2002. Reticence in second language case discussions: Anxiety and aspirations. Systems, 30: 65-84.

Jenkins, J. 2000. Teaching phonology of English as an international language. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

Kagan, S. 1995. Cooperative learning. Boston: Charlesbridge.

Kay, R.H. & Knaack, L. 2007. A systematic evaluation of learning objects for secondary school students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 35(4): 411-448.

Kervin, L.V.W., Herrington, J. & Okely, T. 2005. Research for educators. Australia:

Thompson.

Knowles, M.S. 1950. Informal adult education. New York: Association Press.

Knowles, M.S., Holton, E.G. & Swanson, R.A. 1998. The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resources development. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.

Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and practice in second language learning. New York:

Pergamon Press.

Krashen, S. 1985. The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.

Kruggel, F. 2006. MRI-based volumetry of head compartments: Normative values of healthy adults. Neurolmage, 30(1), 1-11.

Ku, P.N. 1995. Strategies Associated with Proficiency and Predictors of Strategy Choice:

A Study of Language Learning Strategies of EFL Students at Three Educational Levels in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and woman’s place. New York: Harper and Row.

Larson-Freeman, D. & Long, M.H. 1994. An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman.

Larson, M., Lovden, M. & Nilsson, L.G. 2003. Sex differences in recollective experiences for olfactory and verbal information. Acta Psychologica. 112: 89-103.

Brewer. W.F. Learning theory: Constructivist approach. Retrieved from:

http://www.answers.com/topic/learning-theory-constructivist-approach [Accessed on 17 Oct 2012].

Leedy, P. 2005. Practical research: planning and design. New York: McMillan.

Leedy, P. & Ormrod, J.E. 2005. Practical research: Planning and design. (8th ed). New York: McMillan.

Lewicki, P.., Hill, T. & Czyzewska, M. 1992. Nonconscious acquisition of information.

American Psychologist. 47: 796-801.

Lewis-Beck, MS., Bryman, A. & Liao, TF. 2004. The Sage encyclopedia of Social Science research methods. London: SAGE.

Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. 2006. (3rd ed). How languages are learned. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2009. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Ltd.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |


Similar works:

«A Second Refuge French Opera and the Huguenot Migration, c. 1680 – c. 1710 By Rebekah Susannah Ahrendt A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Music in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley Committee in charge: Professor Kate van Orden, Chair Professor Richard Taruskin Professor Peter Sahlins Fall 2011 A Second Refuge French Opera and the Huguenot Migration, c. 1680 – c. 1710 Copyright 2011 by...»

«DR. WOLFGANG THORWART Dozent für Philosophie und Literatur Goethes Naturund Gottesbegriff Johann Wolfgang Goethes (1749-1832) Lebensspanne fiel größtenteils in die allgemeine Zeitenwende des späten 18. Jahrhunderts, die man heute eine “Sattelzeit” nennt. Es ist die Epoche der Hochaufklärung mit ihrer allgemeinen Aufwertung der menschlichen Fähigkeiten, nachdem man die Menschen im Namen der göttlichen Vernunft ein Jahrtausend zur Verleugnung der menschichen Fähigkeiten gezwungen...»

«J. TECHNICAL WRITING AND COMMUNICATION, Vol. 34(4) 265-290, 2004 HERBERT SPENCER’S PHILOSOPHY OF STYLE: CONSERVING MENTAL ENERGY RUSSEL HIRST University of Tennessee, Knoxville ABSTRACT My article traces the development, chronicles the impact, and explains the essence of Herbert Spencer’s “The Philosophy of Style” (1852). Spencer’s essay has had a significant influence on stylistics, especially in scientific and technical communication. Although in our generation Spencer’s...»

«DIPLOMARBEIT „Der Umgang mit Fremden im europäischen Detektivroman des XX. Jahrhunderts, analysiert an Beispielen Agatha Christies und Georges Simenons.“ Verfasser Vanja Eichberger angestrebter akademischer Grad Magister der Philosophie (Mag. phil.) Wien, 2013 Studienkennzahl lt. A 393 Studienblatt: Studienrichtung lt. Diplomstudium Vergleichende Literaturwissenschaft Studienblatt: Mag. Dr. Sandra Vlasta Betreuerin: INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 4 1.1. Themenwahl 4 1.1.1. Hercule Poirot...»

«Diplomarbeit Titel der Diplomarbeit „240 Tage Sodom – Sade, Pasolini und die Verwertung des Individuums in der Moderne“ Verfasser Lukas Johne Angestrebter akademischer Grad Magister der Philosophie (Mag. phil.) Wien, September 2011 A – 296 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: Diplomarbeitsgebiet lt. Studienblatt: Philosophie Univ.-Doz. DDr. Mădălina Diaconu Betreuerin: But inside doesn’t matter.whatever. There are no more barriers to cross. All I have in common with the uncontrollable...»

«Suhrkamp Verlag Leseprobe Brandom, Robert B. Wiedererinnerter Idealismus Aus dem Amerikanischen von Falk Hamann und Aaron Shoichet © Suhrkamp Verlag suhrkamp taschenbuch wissenschaft 2104 978-3-518-29704-9 suhrkamp taschenbuch wissenschaft 2104 Was unterscheidet uns Menschen von anderen Lebewesen? Laut dem großen amerikanischen Philosophen Robert Brandom vor allem die Tatsache, dass wir in unserem Handeln und Urteilen Verpflichtungen eingehen und Verantwortung für das übernehmen, was wir...»

«SHAKESPEARE‟S TELLING WORDS: GRAMMAR, LINGUISTIC ENCOUNTERS, AND THE RISKS OF SPEECH by Alysia Michelle Kolentsis A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of English University of Toronto © Copyright by Alysia Michelle Kolentsis (2008) ii Shakespeare‟s Telling Words: Grammar, Linguistic Encounters, and the Risks of Speech Alysia Michelle Kolentsis Doctor of Philosophy Department of English University of Toronto...»

«Wittgenstein and the Future of Philosophy Wittgenstein und die Zukunft der Philosophie A Reassessment after 50 Years Eine Neubewertung nach 50 Jahren Beiträge der Österreichischen Ludwig Wittgenstein Gesellschaft Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society Editorial Board Elisabeth Leinfellner Rudolf Haller Werner Leinfellner Klaus Puhl Paul Weingartner Volume IX (1) Band IX (1) Wittgenstein und die Zukunft der Philosophie Eine Neubewertung nach 50 Jahren Beiträge des 24....»

«The Medieval Tournament: Chivalry, Heraldry and Reality An Edition and Analysis of Three Fifteenth-Century Tournament Manuscripts 2 Volumes Ralph Dominic Moffat Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy The University of Leeds Institute for Medieval Studies August 2010 The candidate confirms that the work submitted is his own and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others. Acknowledgments The production...»

«Systematische Ganzheitlichkeit Eine methodologische Vermittlung zwischen Perspektivität und Universalität mit einem Grundriß der Anwendbarkeit dieses Ansatzes auf die Geowissenschaften Inauguraldissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der Philosophie vorgelegt der Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Basel von Alec A. Schaerer Bürger von Sumiswald / BE und Genf Basel, Oktober 2011 Genehmigt von der Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät auf...»

«Diplomarbeit Titel der Diplomarbeit Wirkfaktoren in der Filialtherapie Eine theoretische Abhandlung über Wirkgrößen in der CPRT Verfasserin Maria Farahnaz Faseli Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Magistra der Philosophie (Mag. Phil.) Wien, 2011 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: 297 Studienrichtung lt. Studienblatt: Pädagogik Betreuer: Ao. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Robert Hutterer Ich widme diese Arbeit Shirin, Clemens und Nikolaus DANKSAGUNG An erster Stelle möchte ich Ao. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Robert...»

«Clustering Categorical Data Using Data Summaries and Spectral Techniques By Eman Abdu A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Computer Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The City University of New York ©2009 Eman Abdu All Rights Reserved ii This manuscript has been read and accepted for the Graduate Faculty in Computer Science in satisfaction of the dissertation requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. _ _ Date...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Books, abstracts, thesis

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.