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«The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 May 13, 2005 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the ...»

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MISSION-DIRECTED PATH PLANNING FOR PLANETARY ROVER EXPLORATION

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REFERENCES

[73] C. Urmson, J. Anhalt, M. Clark, T. Galatali, J. Gonzalez, J. Gowdy, J. Gutierrez, S. Harbaugh, M. Johnson-Roberson, Y. Kato, P. Koon, K.

Peterson, B. Smith, S. Spiker, E. Tryzelaar, W. Whittaker, “High Speed Navigation of Unrehearsed Terrain: Red Team Technology for Grand Challenge 2004,” Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-04-37, June 2004.

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Wagner, “Life in the Atacama: Field Season 2003 Experiment Plans and Technical Results,” Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-03-50, October 2003.

[80] W. Whittaker, G. Kantor, B. Shamah, D. Wettergreen, “Sun-Synchronous Planetary Exploration,” AIAA Space 2000 Conference and Exposition, 2000.

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Appendix 1: ISE Algorithm

This appendix describes the Incremental Search Engine (ISE) algorithm in greater detail than presented in Chapter 3.

ISE search centers around a priority queue called the OPEN list. The first section describes how the OPEN list operates. The following section presents the ISE algorithm at the highest level, in terms of the ISE search modes: BESTPCOST and BESTDPARMS. Each of these modes calls upon state expansion, whose details appear in the third section. An important feature of ISE is its ability to enforce and manage the dominance of some states over others.

The final section in the appendix describes the piece of the algorithm associated with that management task.

A1.1 OPEN List As with D*, ISE maintains a data structure, called the OPEN list, containing states prioritized for expansion. The OPEN list computes the path cost from states to the goals, and propagates information about changes to arc costs incurred during plan execution. The OPEN list propagates information by repeatedly expanding the highest priority state on the list. When a state is expanded, it is removed from the OPEN list, and all its child states are added to the OPEN list. States that are modified through cost increases or decreases are also placed on the OPEN list. All states have an associated tag function t ( X ) that defines their OPEN list status. Tags hold one of three values: t ( X ) = NEW if the X has never been on the open list, t ( X ) = OPEN if X is currently on the OPEN list, and t ( X ) = CLOSED if X was removed from the OPEN list.

For each state on the OPEN list, a key function k ( X ) is defined to be equal to the minimum of h ( X ) before a cost modification and over all values h ( X ) assumed after X was placed on the OPEN list. The key function classifies states on the OPEN list into two types: RAISE states ( k ( X ) h ( X ) )and LOWER states ( k ( X ) = h ( X ) ). RAISE states propagate information about path cost increases, and LOWER states propagate information about path cost reductions.

APPENDIX: ISE ALGORITHM

States are placed on the OPEN list using their key value, which for LOWER states is the cost h ( X ), and for RAISE states is the cost h ( X ) prior to the cost increase. States are expanded in order of increasing f* ( X, R ) = k ( X ) + g ( X, R ), the optimal estimated path cost prior to a possible cost increase (note that for LOWER states, f* ( X, R ) = f ( X, R ) ).



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