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«Statistical Bulletin 03/15 Edited by: Deborah Lader July 2015 Section 1.5 of the bulletin has been updated after a production issue during the ...»

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Drug Misuse: Findings from the

2014/15 Crime Survey for England

and Wales

Second edition

Statistical Bulletin 03/15

Edited by: Deborah Lader

July 2015

Section 1.5 of the bulletin has been updated after a production issue during the statistical significance

testing phase was identified and resolved.

Further information

This release examines the extent and trends in illicit drug use among a nationally representative

sample of 16 to 59 year olds resident in households in England and Wales, and is based on results from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW).

The release covers the following topics:

 Extent and trends in illicit drug use among adults, including separate analysis of young adults (16 to 24 year olds);

 Frequency of illicit drug use in the last year;

 Illicit drug use by personal, household and area characteristics and lifestyle factors;

 Use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), so-called ‘legal highs’;

 Simultaneous polydrug and polysubstance use among adults aged 16 to 59;

 Older drug users (featuring analysis of data from several survey years);

 Drug use within generations over time (a pseudo-cohort analysis);

While responsibility for the CSEW transferred to the Office for National Statistics on 1 April 2012, the Home Office has retained responsibility for analysis and publication of this Drug Misuse publication.

The User Guide to Drug Misuse Statistics provides background information on the CSEW selfcompletion module on drug use, as well as classifications of different drugs and other information pertaining specifically to the Drug Misuse statistical collection. The User Guide to Crime Statistics for England and Wales (published by the Office for National Statistics) provides further information on demographic and area classifications, and statistical conventions and methodology.

Copies of other Home Office publications are available on the Home Office pages of the Gov.uk website: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/home-office/series/drug-misuse-declared The dates of forthcoming publications are pre-announced and can be found on the Statistics Release Calendar pages of the Gov.uk website: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/announcements For further information about the CSEW, please email crimestatistics@ons.gsi.gov.uk Home Office Responsible Statistician David Blunt, Chief Statistician and Head of Profession for Statistics Contact via crimestats@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk This statistical bulletin is produced to the highest professional standards and is free from political interference. It has been produced by statisticians working in the Home Office Statistics Unit in accordance with the Home Office’s statement of compliance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics, which covers Home Office policy on revisions and other matters. The Chief Statistician, as Head of Profession, reports to the National Statistician with respect to all professional statistical matters and oversees all Home Office National Statistics products with respect to the Code, being responsible for their timing, content and methodology.

–  –  –

Conventions used in figures and tables

List of figures and tables

1 Extent and trends in illicit drug use

–  –  –

1.2 Extent and trends in individual drug use

1.3 Last year use of khat

–  –  –

1.5 Last year use of prescription-only painkillers

1.6 Last month use of illicit drugs

1.7 Use of illicit drugs ever

1.8 Sources of drugs used on last occasion

1.9 Summary of trends

2 Frequency of illicit drug use in the last year

–  –  –

factors

–  –  –

3.4 Extent of illicit drug use by lifestyle factors

3.5 Extent of illicit drug use by area factors

3.6 Extent of prescription painkiller misuse by personal and household factors..... 16 4 New psychoactive substances (NPS)

–  –  –

4.1 Extent of NPS use

4.2 Use of NPS by lifestyle factors

4.3 Other findings

5 Simultaneous polydrug and polysubstance use

–  –  –

5.1 Extent of simultaneous polydrug use

5.2 Composition of simultaneous polydrug use

–  –  –

5.4 Simultaneous polysubstance use

5.5 Characteristics of simultaneous polydrug users

5.6 Reasons for simultaneous drug use

Annex A Older drug users (2013/14)

–  –  –

A.3 Frequency of drug use

A.4 Age of onset

Annex B Drug use within generations over time

–  –  –

Technical Annex

T.1 Interpreting the figures

T.2 Re-weighting the CSEW

T.3 Pseudo-cohort analysis

T.4 Other data sources

Conventions used in figures and tables Table abbreviations ‘0’ indicates no response in that particular category or less than 0.5% (this does not apply when percentages are presented to one decimal point).





‘n/a’ indicates that the question was not applicable or not asked in that particular year.

‘-’ indicates that data are not reported because the unweighted base is fewer than 50.

‘**’ indicates that the change is statistically significant at the five per cent level. Where an apparent change over time is not statistically significant this is noted in the text.

Unweighted base All percentages and rates presented in the tables are based on data weighted to compensate for differential non response. Tables show the unweighted base which represents the number of people interviewed in the specified group.

Percentages Row or column percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding.

Most tables present cell percentages where the figures refer to the percentage of people who have the attribute being discussed and the complementary percentage, to add to 100%, is not shown.

A percentage may be quoted in the text for a single category that is identifiable in the tables only by summing two or more component percentages. In order to avoid rounding errors, the percentage has been recalculated for the single category and therefore may differ by one percentage point from the sum of the percentages derived from the tables.

‘No answers’ (missing values) All analysis excludes don’t know/refusals unless otherwise specified.

Numbers of CSEW drug users Estimates are rounded to the nearest 10,000.

–  –  –

Figure 1.1 Trends in illicit drug use in the last year among adults, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure 1.2 Proportion of adults using cannabis in the last year, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure 1.3 Proportion of adults using powder cocaine in the last year, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure 1.4 Proportion of adults using ecstasy in the last year, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Table 1 Last year drug use among adults aged 16 to 59 and young adults aged 16 to 24, with a summary of trends, 2014/15 CSEW

–  –  –

Figure 2.1 Frequency of any drug used, adults aged 16 to 59 and 16 to 24, 2014/15 CSEW

Figure 2.2 Frequency of drug use by individual drug type, adults aged 16 to 59 who took the drug in the last year, 2013/14 CSEW

Figure 2.3 Trends in the proportion of drug users considered frequent users of cannabis, ecstasy and powder cocaine, 2003/04 to 2014/15 CSEW

Illicit drug use by personal, household and area characteristics and lifestyle factors Figure 3.1 Proportion of 16 to 59 year olds using any drug in the last year by age group, 1996 to 2014/15 CSEW

Figure 3.2 Proportion of 16 to 59 year olds reporting use of selected drugs in the last year by sex, 1996 to 2014/15 CSEW

Figure 3.3 Proportion of 16 to 59 year olds reporting use of selected drugs in the last year by frequency of alcohol consumption, 1996 to 2014/15 CSEW

–  –  –

Figure 4.1 Prevalence of NPS use ever and in the last year, by sex, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 2014/15 CSEW

Table 2 NPS use in the last year by use of an illicit drug in the last year, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 2014/15 CSEW

Table 3 NPS use in the last year by frequency of visits to a nightclub or disco in the last month, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 2014/15 CSEW

Table 4 NPS use in the last year by frequency of visits to a pub or wine bar in the last month, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 2014/15 CSEW

Table 5 NPS use in the last year by frequency of alcohol consumption in the last month, 16 to 59 and 16 to 24 year olds, 2014/15 CSEW

–  –  –

5 Simultaneous polydrug and polysubstance use Figure 5.1 Composition of drug use the last time drugs were used among adults aged 16 to 59, 2013/14 and 2014/15 combined, CSEW

Figure 5.2 Composition of drug use the last time drugs were used among adults aged 16 to 59, by drug, 2013/14 and 2014/15 combined, CSEW

Figure 5.3 Main reason for taking the particular combination of drugs the last time drugs were used among adults aged 16 to 59, 2013/14 and 2014/15 combined, CSEW

Annex A Older drug users (2013/14) Figure A.1 Proportion of 16 to 39 and 40 to 59 year olds using any drug in the last year, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure A.2 Proportion of 40 to 59 year olds using cannabis in the last year, 1996 to 2014/15 CSEW

Table 6 Proportion of 16 to 39 and 40 to 59 year old last year cannabis users using skunk, and other types of cannabis, 2013/14, CSEW

Figure A.3 Proportion of 40 to 59 year olds using powder cocaine and ecstasy in the last year, 1996 to 2014/15 CSEW

Figure A.4 Frequency of individual drug use in the last year, adults aged 16 to 39 and 40 to 59 who took the drug in the last year, 2012/13 and 2013/14 combined, CSEW

Table 7 Frequency of cannabis use in the last year, adults aged 16 to 39 and 40 to 59 who took cannabis in the last year, 2012/13 and 2013/14 combined, CSEW............. 31 Figure A.5 Most common (modal) age when 16 to 39 year olds and 40 to 59 year olds who had ever reported taking powder cocaine, ecstasy or cannabis, reported first taking each type of drug, 2011/12, CSEW

Figure A.6 Proportion of 40 to 59 year old cannabis, powder cocaine, and ecstasy users who first took each drug at each age, 2011/12, CSEW

Annex B Drug use within generations over time Figure B.1 Proportion of adults using any drug in the last year, by age cohort, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure B.2 Proportion of adults using cannabis in the last year, by age cohort, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure B.3 Proportion of adults using powder cocaine in the last year, by age cohort, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Figure B.4 Proportion of adults using ecstasy in the last year, by age cohort, 1996 to 2014/15, CSEW

Technical Annex Table 8 Progression of age cohorts through CSEW years

–  –  –

This chapter covers the extent and trends in illicit drug use among adults aged 16 to 59 measured by the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW). Figures for young adults aged 16 to 24 are also provided. Figures are presented since 1996, when comparable questions were first included on the survey.

The 2014/15 survey measured levels of drug use in the last month and in the last year prior to interview, as well as drug use at any point in the respondent’s lifetime. The questions on last year use and use ever are regularly included in the CSEW. The questions on last month use were previously included in the 2011/12 survey, and provide a measure of the recency of drug use. In the 2014/15 survey these questions have replaced questions on the frequency of drug use for most individual drug types, except cannabis.

The User Guide to Drug Misuse Statistics provides further details relating to illicit drug use measures.

The User Guide to Crime Statistics for England and Wales (published by the Office for National Statistics) provides further information on demographic and area classifications, and statistical conventions and methodology.

Estimates of illicit drug use among adults from the 2014/15 CSEW can be found in the data tables.

KEY FINDINGS

 Around 1 in 12 (8.6%) adults aged 16 to 59 had taken an illicit drug in the last year. This equated to around 2.8 million people. This level of drug use was similar to the 2013/14 survey (8.8%), but significantly lower than a decade ago (11.2% in the 2004/05 survey).

 Around 1 in 5 (19.4%) young adults aged 16 to 24 had taken an illicit drug in the last year.

This proportion was more than double that of the wider age group, and equated to around 1.2 million people. This level of drug use was similar to the 2013/14 survey (19.0%), but significantly lower compared with a decade ago (26.5% in the 2004/05 survey).

 The use of ecstasy in the last year increased among 16 to 24 year olds between the 2013/14 and 2014/15 surveys, from 3.9 per cent to 5.4 per cent. This is an increase of approximately 95,000 people.

 Last year use of khat among 16 to 59 year olds has fallen to 0.04 per cent. This is a significant fall compared with the 2011/12 estimate of 0.2 per cent, when khat use was last measured by the CSEW. Khat was legal prior to June 2014, when it became controlled as a Class C drug.

 Around 1 in 20 (4.7%) adults aged 16 to 59 had taken an illicit drug in the last month, while one in ten (10.2%) young adults aged 16 to 24 had done so. Neither proportion has changed significantly compared with the 2011/12 survey, when the questions on last month use were last asked.

 Just over one-third (34.7%) of adults aged 16 to 59 had taken drugs at some point during their lifetime. This is similar to the 2013/14 survey estimate (35.7%).

1.1 EXTENT AND TRENDS IN OVERALL DRUG USE AND CLASS A DRUG USE



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